Metabolism and Nutirion Physiology | Citric Acid Cycle | Glycolysis

Human Anatomy and Physiology II

Biology 1414 Unit 8 Metabolism and Nutrition

Objective 1
Define metabolism and differentiate between catabolism and anabolism. Be able to apply the latter two terms to various metabolic reactions.

Unit 8 - Objective 1

Definition of Metabolism
Metabolism is defined as the sum total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body.

Unit 8 - Objective 1

removal of hydrogen (dehydrogenation).Objective 1 . oxidation. Unit 8 . more simplified products. carboxyl groups (decarboxylation) and amino groups (deamination). etc.Catabolism Catabolism is that part of metabolism that involves the break down of large. complex molecules into smaller. This occurs during digestion.

more complex molecules from small.Objective 1 . Examples of anabolism would include the synthesis of glycogen from glucose. fat from glycerol and fatty acids and construction of new antibodies and new enzymes. Unit 8 . simple reactants. protein from amino acids.Anabolism Anabolism is that part of metabolism that involves the synthesis of larger.

Unit 8 .Objective 2 Indicate the location of . diagram and describe the major metabolic pathways involved in the catabolism of glucose to carbon dioxide and water. where ATP is made where oxygen is utilized. Indicate where hydrogens are given off.Objective 2 . where water is produced and identify key assigned intermediates.

Unit 8 . The portion of cell metabolism that breaks down glucose is generally called cellular respiration. glycolysis. Cellular respiration has three major events. the Krebs cycle and the electron transport system (ETS).Glucose Catabolsm Glucose Catabolism is one of the primary metabolic events that occurs during cell metabolism.Objective 1 .

Location of the Major Metabolic Pathways Metabolic Pathway Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport System Unit 8 .Objective 2 Location Cytoplasm Mitochondria (matrix) Mitrochondria (cristae) .

Unit 8 .Events of Glycolysis In phase one.6-DP sugar then splits (lysis) into two. This is accomplished by using two ATP molecules to phosphorylate the sugar at carbons 1 and 6.6-DP).6Diphosphate (F-1. Glycolysis takes in glucose as a ³fuel´ and transforms it into a ³super active´ intermediate compound called Fructose-1. half sized sugar fragments which become Glyceraldehyde Phosphate and Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate.Objective 2 . In phase two. the F-1.

inorganic phosphate is added from the substrate of the cytoplasm to each intermediate. the two half sized intermediates are oxidized down to two pyruvic acid molecules. During this process. hydrogen along with its electrons are removed from each intermediate.Events of Glycolysis In phase three. This phosphate is added to ADP to form four ATP molecules. NAD picks up the hydrogens for transport and all of the phosphate is removed (4 total) from the intermediates. Unit 8 .Objective 2 .

Events of Glycolysis
The removal of hydrogen is called dehydrogenation and is an oxidation process. When NAD picks up hydrogen, a reduction process occurs. The addition of phosphate is called phosphorylation and results in the net production of two ATP molecules ( two used up in phase one minus four produced in phase three). The overall transformation of glucose into two pyruvic acids is also an oxidation process.
Unit 8 - Objective 2

Events of Glycolysis
Examine the following slide in order to visualize the event of Glycolysis.

Unit 8 - Objective 2

Summary of Glycolysis

To begin the Krebs cycle. This process occurs in the fluid matrix of the mitochondrion. Unit 8 .Events of The Krebs Cycle The Krebs cycle is named after Hans Krebs and is a metabolic event that follows glycolysis. uses the pyruvic acid from glycolysis and is aerobic. pyruvic acid is converted to acetyl COA.Objective 2 .

Next. 2.The removal of hydrogen is called dehydrogenation which is an oxidation process. At this point.Objective 2 . two carbon dioxides are produced and diffuse to the blood.Conversion of Pyruvic Acid to Acetyl COA The conversion of pyruvic acid to acetyl COA is a three step process: 1. COA is added to each acetyl group. each of the two pyruvic acids are decarboxylated . hydrogen is removed from each acetyl group and added to NAD. This event yields two acetyl groups. Unit 8 . 3. The addition of hydrogen to NAD is a reduction process. First. Finally.

The citric acid is then systematically decarboxylated and dehyrogenated in order to use up the acetyl groups that were attached to the oxaloacetate. This results in the first major product of the Krebs cycle called citric acid. Unit 8 .Events of The Krebs Cycle AcetylCOA which results from the conversion of pyruvic acid then reacts with oxaloacetate using an enzyme called citrate synthase.Objective 2 . Because of this. This allows oxaloacetate and COA to be used in the next cycle. the Krebs cycle is sometimes called the citric acid cycle.

Objective 2 . one dehydrogenation that forms one reduced FAD (FADH2). two decarboxylations that form two carbon dioxides and one substrate phosphoporylation that forms an ATP molecule. two cycles occur and the above output is doubled. Unit 8 .Events of The Krebs Cycle The conversion of citric acid back to oxaloacetate involves three dehydrodenations that form three reduced NAD (NADH2) molecules. When two acetylCOA¶s are utilized.

Two ATP molecules Unit 8 . Eight reduced NAD molecules (NADH2) 3.Output of The Krebs Cycle 1.Objective 2 . Six CO2 molecules 2. Two reduced FAD molecules (FADH2) 4.

Unit 8 .Events of The Krebs Cycle Examine the following slide in order to visualize the events of the Krebs Cycle.Objective 2 .

Summary of the Krebs Cycle .

The ETS takes place in the cristae of the mitochondrion and uses oxygen directly (aerobic). This system contains respiratory enzyme complexes that include iron compounds called cytochromes. This metabolic process uses the reduced NAD and FAD that is produced by glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. Unit 8 .Objective 2 . The cytochromes accept hydrogen from NAD and FAD.Events of the Electron Transport System (ETS) The electron transport system can also be called the electron transport chain.

Objective 2 .Events of the Electron Transport System After receiving hydrogen. the cytochromes split hydrogen into an electron and a hydrogen ion. Hydrogen ions are passed into the space between the inner and outer membane of the mitochondrion where they accumulate and create an elevated hydrogen potential. Unit 8 . The high potential causes the hydrogen ions to pass through an ATP synthase protein portal. Electrons from hydrogen are passed through the chain to oxygen.

Events of the Electron Transport System The hydrogen from NAD will yield 3 ATP¶s and the hydrogen from FAD will yield 2 ATP¶s. The hydrogen ions that pass back into the mitochondrial matrix then combine with the oxygen that has gained electrons to form water. Unit 8 . The ETS will process 10 reduced NAD¶s from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle to yield 30 ATP¶s.The ETS will also process 4 reduced FAD¶s from the Krebs cycle to yield 4 ATP¶s.Objective 2 .

this is called oxidation. When Oxygen accepts those electrons.Objective 2 Summary of the Electron Transport System . When ATP synthase adds phosphate to ADP when it passes hydrogen ions to reduced oxygen.When hydrogen loses electrons in the ETS. it is called reduction. The addition of hydrogen ions to oxygen creates enough water to yield a net of 6 waters for the process of cellular respiration. this process is called oxidative phosphorylation. Make note of this when you observe the slide for Objective 3. Unit 8 .

Summary of the Electron Transport System Unit 8 .Objective 2 .Examine the following slides in order to visualize the events of the electron transport system.

Processing Reduced NAD in the ETS .

Processing Reduced FAD in the ETS .

Oxidative Phosphorylation .

Examine the following slide in order to view the summary of total ATP production in Glycolysis. Summary of Total ATP Production Unit 8 .Objective 2 . the Krebs cycle and the Electron Transport System.

ATP Formation During Cellular Respiration .

Objective 3 Write the general balanced equation that shows the catabolism of glucose to carbon dioxide and water. Unit 8 . Include in the equation the formation of ATP from ADP and phosphate and oxygen utilization.Objective 3 .

General Equation for Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + O6 + 36 ADP + 36 PO4 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP + Heat Unit 8 .Objective 3 .

Objective 4 Diagram and describe how lipids and proteins are catabolized into carbon dioxide and water. Unit 8 .Objective4 .

AcetylCOA is then taken into the Krebs cycle and converted into carbon dioxide. Unit 8 . ATP and pyruvic acid.Objective 4 . Glycerol is converted into Glyceraldehyde phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate in Glycolysis and converted into reduced NAD .Catabolism of Lipids Lipids such as triglycerides are broken down to fatty acids and glycerol. Fatty acids are broken down to acetylCOA through a process of beta oxidation. reduced NAD and FAD and ATP.

LIPID METABOLISM .

glycine is converted into an acetyl group that can become acetyl COA. The amine group from glycine is then used as part of urea formation. AcetylCOA is then broken down in the Krebs cycle as discussed in the slide before last. For example.Objective4 .Catabolism of Proteins Proteins are broken down to amino acids. Unit 8 . Amino acids are deaminated and converted into metabolic fragments.

Amino Acid Metabolism .

Summary of Lipid and Protein Catabolism View the following slide for a summary of lipid and protein catabolism Unit 8 .Objective 5 .

Catabolism of Lipids and Proteins .

Objective 5 . glycerol catabolism. ketone body formation. Unit 8 . amino acid catabolism. deamination.Objective 5 Describe what is meant by the following: beta oxidation. fatty acid catabolism.

Think how much extra ATP and reduced NAD And FAD can be made because of this! Unit 8 . then 9 acetyl COA units would be made. 3 NADH2 and 1 FADH2.Beta Oxidation Beta oxidation is a catabolic process that breaks down fatty acids two carbon units at a time. The two carbon units become acetyl groups that are converted into acetyl COA. An acetyl COA is then used in the Krebs Cycle to make one ATP . If a fatty acid has 18 carbon units.Objective 5 .

Deamination Deamination is a catabolic process that removes an amino group from an amino acid in preparation for its use in the Krebs Cycle or a similar metabolic pathway. Unit 8 .Objective 5 .

reduced NAD and pyruvic acid. The GALP is then broken down to form ATP. Glycerol is then converted to glyceraldehyde phosphate (GALP) and used at a mid point in glycolysis (see Glycolysis in Objective 2). Unit 8 .Glycerol Catabolism When fat is digested it is broken down to glycerol and fatty acids.Objective 5 .

Objective 5 . Unit 8 .Fatty Acid Catabolism When fat is digested it is broken down to glycerol and fatty acids. The fatty acids are then broken down by the process of beta oxidation to produce acetyl COA as discussed in a previous slide.

The liver then converts excess acetyl COA into ketones (acetone. These ketones are acidic and as they accumulate. acetoacetate. they cause ketoacidosis. Acetyl COA cannot be used and accumulates.). Unit 8 . etc. or if glucose is not being transferred from the blood to body cells (as in diabetes mellitus).Ketone Body Formation If a person is not getting enough glucose through the diet (rare!) because of fasting. etc. Without oxaloacetate. then oxaloacetate from the Krebs Cycle is converted to new glucose.Objective 5 . starvation.

Deamination removes amino groups from the amino acid to yield a fragment that can be used in the Krebs Cycle.Amino Acid Catabolism If more amino acids accumulate than can be used in the synthesis of new proteins. then they can be catabolized or broken down by a process called deamination.Objective 5 . Unit 8 .

HDL and saturated fats in cholesterol metabolism.Objective 6 . Unit 8 .Objective 6 Discuss the role of LDL.

These metabolic units contain small portions of phospholipids an triglycerides and large quantities of cholesterol.Role of LDL in Cholesterol Metabolism LDL stands for low density proteins made in the liver. Cholesterol from LDL¶s can be transported to blood vessels and stored as part of plaque deposits Unit 8 .Objective 6 . The LDL is designed to transport its stored material from the liver to cells and tissues.

back to the liver. This is a good way to eliminate cholesterol from the body.Role of HDL in Cholesterol Metabolism HDL stands for high density lipoprotein which is made in tissues during increased activity. This metabolic unit transports phospholipid.Objective 6 . triglyceride and cholesterol from tissues. Unit 8 . including blood vessels. The cholesterol that is transported back to the liver is converted into Bile which is excreted and stored in the gall bladder.

In terms of good nutrition it is recommended that unsaturated fats be substituted for saturated fats a high percentage of the time in the diet. Unit 8 .Role of Saturated Fats in Cholesterol Metabolism Saturated fats are triglycerides that contain fatty acids that have a full compliment of hydrogen.Objective 6 . This type of fat stimulates the liver to make cholesterol for storage in body tissues and to inhibit the release of cholesterol from the body.

Summary of Lipoproteins Observe the following slide for the lipid composition of lipoproteins.Objective 6 . Unit 8 .

Triglycerides and Cholesterol . HDL.Comparison of LDL.

dehydrogenation. reduction. glycogenesis. electron transport system (ETS). celllar respiration. glycolysis. Krebs cycle. glycogenolysis.Objective 6 . gluconeogenesis Unit 8 .Objective 7 Define the following as they relate to metabolism: oxidation. pyruvic acid. oxidative phosphorylation. coenzyme A. decarboxylation.

Objective 7 . Unit 8 . These reactions can be grouped into metabolic processes called glycolysis.Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is a group of catabolic reactions in the cell that breaks down food fuels such as glucose. The main purpose of cellular respiration is to provide a constant supply of ATP for various cell activities. the Krebs cycle and the electron transport system.

During this conversion. This process breaks down glucose into two pyruvic acids. ATP and reduced NAD is formed.Glycolysis Glycolysis (= splitting sugar) is an anaerobic process that occurs in the cell cytoplasm. Unit 8 .Objective 7 .

Pyruvic Acid Pyruvic acid is the end product of glucose breakdown that occurs in the process of Glycolysis. Unit 8 .Objective 7 .

is an important cofactor that is used to transport acetyl groups into the Krebs Cycle. which is made using the vitamin pantothenic acid. Unit 8 .Coenzyme A Coenzyme A.Objective 7 .

ATP and reduced NAD and FAD are synthesized.Objective 7 . Since the mitochondrion uses oxygen this process is considered aerobic.Krebs Cycle The krebs cycle is a part of cellular respiration that occurs in the matrix of the mitochondrion. Unit 8 . As acetyl groups are broken down during this cycle. This process regenerates oxaloacetate during each cycle which is used to pick up acetyl groups to form citric acid.

Unit 8 .Objective 7 . This part of cellular respiration uses the reduced NAD and FAD from glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle and oxygen to generate large quantities of ATP and water.Electron Transport System The electron transport system (ETS) occurs in the cristae of the mitochondrion and is aerobic.

Objective 7 . ATP production occurs in the ETS when electrons are removed from the hydrogen being transported by reduced NAD and FAD. The electrons from the hydrogen are ultimately passed on to Oxygen.Oxidative Phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation is a process that occurs in the electron transport system (ETS) and involves the addition of phosphate to ADP to make ATP. Oxygen is the final electron acceptor in the body! Unit 8 .

Glycogenesis Glycogenesis is an anabolic process that occurs mainly in the liver and muscle when there is excess glucose. This process combines hundreds of glucose molecules to form glycogen. Glycogen is then stored in the cell as a ³starch-like´ compound . Unit 8 .Objective 7 .

Glycogenlolysis Glycogenolysis is a catabolic process that occurs mainly in the liver an muscle.Objective 7 . This process is essentially a reversal of glycogenesis (see previous slide). stored glycogen is broken down to release glucose for use in the body. During glycogenolysis. Unit 8 .

Comparison of Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis .

Objective 7 . amino acid fragments and fat derivatives into glucose. Unit 8 . The metabolic pathways can convert materials such as oxaloacetate (from the Krebs cycle).Gluconeogenesis Gluconeogenesis is a process that produces new glucose from non-carbohydrate sources. lactic acid. This can ultimately cause deterioration. other factors in the body are ³sacrificed´ to make the new glucose. Even though gluconeogenesis is anabolic.

Objective 8 Define the term nutrient and list six major classes of nutrients.Objective 8 . Unit 8 .

Objective 8 .Definition of Nutrient A nutrient is defined as a substance in food that is used by the body to promote growth. Unit 8 . repair and maintenance.

Lipids 3. Vitamins 6.Objective 8 .Major Classes of Nutrients 1. Proteins 4. Water Unit 8 . Minerals 5. Carbohydrates 2.

Objective 9 Define the term mineral and give the proper symbol and function of the following: calcium. Unit 8 .Objective 9 . sodium. phosphorous. iodine. magnesium. potassium. iron. zinc.

For exmple.Objective 9 . Unit 8 . This results in sodium chloride which is an inorganic salt and one of the more abundant minerals in the earth. The metal sodium forms a sodium ion in water that can react with a chloride ion that forms from chlorine gas that can dissolve in water.Definition of Mineral A mineral is an inorganic substance made from a metal and a nonmineral.

Assists nerve cell function 4. Assists hardening of teeth and bones 3.Objective 9 . Assists blood clotting 2. Included in the list of uses are: 1.Calcium Calcium ( Ca+2) is a cation that has multiple uses in the body. Helps to initiate muscle contraction Unit 8 .

Phosphorous Phosphorous is used mainly in the form of phosphate ( PO4-3). Form buffers for acid-base control Unit 8 . Combine with calcium to form a crystalline bone salt called calcium phosphate. Combine with ADP to form ATP 2. This anion can be used to: 1. 3.Objective 9 .

Used to make cytochromes found in the ETS 3. Included in the list are: 1. Used as a cofactor in enzyme activity 2.Iron Iron ( Fe+2) is a cation that has several uses in the body. Used to form hemoglobin Unit 8 .Objective 9 .

Iodine Iodine ( I-1) is an anion that is used mainly to form thyroid hormones.Objective 9 . Unit 8 .

2.Objective 9 . Create a positive condition outside the cell.Sodium Sodium (Na+1) is a cation that is used to: 1. Osmotically control water in the extracellular fluid (ECF) Unit 8 . Assist depolarization of nerve and muscle cells 3.

Contribute to synthesis reactions Unit 8 .Potassium Potassium (K+1) is a cation that is used to: 1. Assist osmotic control of water in the intracellular fluid (ICF) 3.Objective 9 . Assist repolarization in nerve and muscle cells 2.

Assist enzymes that are involved in in the formation of ATP 2.Magnesium Magnesium (Mg+2) is a cation that is used to: 1. Maintain sensitivity in nerve cells Unit 8 .Objective 9 .

Zinc
Zinc (Zn+2) is a cation that is used to: 1. Assist enzymes such as carbonic anhydrase 2. Contribute to structure of certain proteins e.g. tumor suppressor protein 3. Required for normal growth, wound healing, taste, smell, sperm production, prostate activity, etc.
Unit 8 - Objective 9

Objective 10
Define what is meant by the term vitamin and give or recognize the function (s) of the following vitamins. Indicate whether each vitamin is water or fat soluble and discuss how this characteristic influences vitamin retention: Vitamins A, D, E, K, C, Niacin, Riboflavin, Thiamine and Pantothenic Acid.

Unit 8 - Objective 10

Definition of Vitamin
A vitamin is a specialized organic compound that is used to assist enzymes in various metabolic reactions. For example the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase removes hydrogen from succinic acid in the Krebs cycle and then transfers this hydrogen to FAD which is made from riboflavin. The hydrogen transfer to FAD is called reduction. Reduced FAD then transports hydrogen to the ETS.
Unit 8 - Objective 9

Serves as an antixoidant 2. and. toxicity can result. This vitamin can be stored in fats and oils.Vitamin A Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin that can take the form of retinol or retinal. Assists the formation of light sensitive pigments in rod and cone cells of the retina.Objective 10 . bones and reproductive cells. The functions for Vitamin A include: 1. if there is excessive storage. Unit 8 . 3. Assists growth of teeth.

Stimulates calcium absorption in the body 2. This vitamin can be stored in fats and oils.Objective 10 . if there is excessive storage. blood clotting and nerve function. Unit 8 . Assists bone formation. toxicity can result.Vitamin D Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that is made in the skin due to exposure to sunlight. and. The functions for Vitamin D include: 1.

Antioxidant 2.Vitamin E Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin that is found in vegetables. toxicity seldom results. This vitamin can be stored in fats and oils. The functions for Vitamin E include: 1. Helps protect cell membranes Unit 8 .Objective 10 .

Vitamin K Vitamin K is a fat soluble vitamin that is found in vegetables. This vitamin is not stored in large amounts in the body. The functions for Vitamin K include: 1. Formation of blood clotting proteins 2. liver and can be made by bacteria in the large intestine. Used as an part of the electron transport system and assists ATP formation Unit 8 .Objective 10 .

This vitamin cannot be stored in the body and must be consumed on a constant basis. The functions for Vitamin C include: 1. bile and active folacin 4. Antioxidant 2. Assists connective tissue formation 3. Assists iron absorption Unit 8 .Vitamin C Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin that is found in fruits and vegetables. Assists formation of serotonin.Objective 10 .

This vitamin cannot be stored in the body and must be consumed on a constant basis. leafy vegetables meats and nuts. Inhibits cholesterol formation 3. Dilates peripheral blood vessels and causes flushing Unit 8 . The functions for Niacin include: 1.Niacin Niacin is a water soluble vitamin that is found in green. Assists formation of NAD for use in cellular respiration 2.Objective 10 .

Objective 10 . The functions for Riboflavin include: 1. eggs. yeast. This vitamin cannot be stored in the body and must be consumed on a constant basis. milk.Riboflavin Riboflavin is a water soluble vitamin that is found in legumes. Assists formation of FAD for use in cellular respiration Unit 8 . meats and nuts.

This vitamin cannot be stored in the body and must be consumed on a constant basis. Assists the formation of acetylcholine 4. yeast. Assists transformation of pyruvic acid to acetyl COA 2..Thiamine Thiamine is a water soluble vitamin that is found in legumes. Remember these! 3. eggs. Assists the oxidation of alcohol Unit 8 . Assists formation of pentose sugars such as ribose and deoxyribose. The functions for thiamine include: 1.Objective 10 . meats and green leafy vegetables.

Objective 10 . Involved in the synthesis of steriods and the heme unit of hemoglobin Unit 8 .. meats and grains. yeast. eggs. The functions for pantothenic acid include: 1. Used in the formation of coenzyme A 2. This vitamin cannot be stored in the body and must be consumed on a constant basis.Pantothenic Acid Pantothenic Acid is a water soluble vitamin that is found in legumes.

hyperglycemia.Objective 11 . thyroxine. giantism. acromegaly. cretinism.Objective 11 Give the source and functions of the following hormones and indicate the cause and symptoms of the hormonal disorders listed below: insulin. growth hormone (GH). diabetes mellitus. thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). hypoglycemia. dwarfism Unit 8 .

This hormone also helps tissues convert glucose into fat an glycogen.Objective 11 . This hormone helps transfer glucose from the blood into the body cells and tissues. Unit 8 .Insulin Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas.

This can result in a low blood sugar condition called hypoglycemia Unit 8 . it can cause too much glucose to move out of the blood and into the cells and tissues of the body.Objective 11 .Hypoglycemia If an excess of insulin is produced.

Objective 11 .Hyperglycemia If too little insulin is produced. Unit 8 . blood glucose accumulates and does not go into cells and tissues. This results in a high blood glucose condition called hyperglycemia.

Unit Objective 11 . Type II diabetes mellitus is due to age and poor8 -response to insulin. this results in a pathological condition called diabetes mellitis.Diabetes Mellitus If the beta cells of the pancreas become diseased and stop producing insulin at an early age. diabetes because it results in chronic hyperglycemia that must be controlled for the life of the individual.or juvenile. This disease is sometimes called Type I .

this hormone stimulates the thyroid to release thyroxine. Unit 8 . As the name suggests.Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is produced and released from the anterior pituitary. either in the form T4 or T3.Objective 11 .

Unit 8 .Objective 11 . Excess thyroxine leads to hyperthyroidism and very high metabolism. repair and body temperature.Thyroxine Thyroxine is a hormone produced by the follicles of the thyroid gland and is used to increase cell metabolism. This function helps to maintain proper growth. Below normal thyroxine production leads to hypothyroidism and very low metabolism.

Objective 11 .Cretinism Cretinism is a disease of very young children and occurs when below normal amounts of thyroxine are produced. ³Cretins´ become severely stunted and retarded. growth and development. This results in very low metabolism. Unit 8 .

protein production and body organ development. This hormone increases fat utilization. Unit 8 .Growth Hormone Growth Hormone (GH) is produced and released from the anterior pituitary.Objective 11 . The long bones of the body are especially stimulated to grow in length.

This disease occurs in young.Objective 11 . fast growing children and results in excessive height for the person¶s age and genetic background. Unit 8 .Giantism Giantism is a disease caused by excess secretion of growth hormone (GH).

jaw and internal organs.Acromegaly Acromegaly is a disease also caused by excess secretion of growth hormone (GH). Unit 8 .Objective 11 . This disease occurs in adults and results in overdeveloped body parts such as hands. feet. forehead.

Unit 8 .Objective 11 . This disease occurs in young children and results slow growth and very short height.Dwarfism Dwarfism is a disease caused by below normal secretion of growth hormone (GH).

Objective 12 Recognize and/or list five products produced by lipid and protein anabolism Unit 8 .Objective 12 .

Waxes 4.Objective 12 . Products of lipid anabolism include: 1. etc. Fats (triglycerides) 2. Oils 3. phosphates. fatty acids.Lipid Anabolism Lipid anabolism is a constructive metabolic process that produces new lipids from such materials as glycerol. Phospholipids 5. Steriods Unit 8 .

etc. New Collagen for the skin 5. 4. myosin. New antibodies 3. New enzymes 2. Unit 8 .Protein Anabolism Protein anabolism is a constructive metabolic process that produces new proteins from amino acids. New muscle proteins.Objective 12 New keratin for the hair and fingernails . Products of protein anabolism include: 1. actin.

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