Module 6: Decision Making

Zaid Ali Alsagoff zaid.alsagoff@gmail.com

Should You Ask? Sir. Hehehe! . why is my coursework marks so low? I deserve higher marks.

Which Mobile Phone should I buy? What are the things you consider before making a decision? .

What should I wear for class (or work) today? What are the things you consider before making a decision? .

Barriers to Good Decision Making 3.Module 6: Decision Making 1. Decision Making Tools . Decision Making Process 4. What is Decision Making? 2.

but the world as it will be."No sensible decision can be made any longer without taking into account not only the world as it is. ." . .Isaac Asimov .

Every decision making process produces a final choice It choice. Examples: Shopping. Source: http://en.org/wiki/Decision_making . when to sleep. It begins when we need to do something but we do not know what. can be an action or an opinion opinion. decision making is a reasoning process which can be rational or irrational. Therefore. and can be based on explicit assumptions or tacit assumptions.. What to wear.wikipedia.6. deciding what to eat.1 What is Decision Making? Decision making is the cognitive process leading to the selection of a course of action among alternatives. etc.

´Successful leaders have the courage to take action while others hesitate.µ . Maxwell .John C.

Narrow . the lack of clarity on important aspects of a decision causes us to overlook certain important considerations.6.Barriers to Critical Thinking Fallacies) Thinking).Sometimes. Fuzzy . For an explanation of the logical processes behind some of these barriers refer to Module 4 (Fallacies and Module 1 (Section .2 Barriers to Good Decision Making Hasty .Making quick decisions without having much thought.Our thoughts in making decisions are disconnected or disorganized. .Decision making is based on very limited information. Scattered .

´ Making good decisions is a crucial skill at every level.Peter Drucker . µ .

Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each choice Synthesize all what you learned in previous steps and make a conclusion that you believe to be your ³best´ choice. making necessary adjustments. the more specific your definition of the decision is to made. Consider all the possible choices. Successful decision makers explore all of the possible choices of the situation. In fact many of the less obvious choices turn out to be the most effective ones. 3. you will discover that adjustments need to be made. Implement a plan of action and then monitor the results. Once you have selected your best choice. 2. Gather all relevant information and evaluate all the pros and cons of each possible choice. the clearer will be your analysis and the likelihood of success.3 Decision Making Process Steps 1. As you begin taking the steps in your plan. In many cases. 4. . we may lack sufficient information to make an informed decision. Select the choice that seems to best meet the needs of the situation. Define the decision clearly. Tips A lot of decision making goes wrong at the starting point. 5.6. you need to develop and implement a specific and concrete plan of action.

Takafumi Horie . I feel like I am able to make better decisions.µ .´Because I'm thinking in a broader way.

4 Decision Making Tools Tools to facilitate better decisions: CoRT (Module 2) SWOT ANALYSIS (Next) SIX THINKING HATS (Module 7) DECISION MATRIX FORCE FIELD ANALYSIS ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM MIND MAPPING SOCRATIC QUESTIONING More I can study these tools on my own. Click! MyCoted + Mind Tools + Creativity Web .6.

Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats .

org/wiki/SWOT_Analysis .1 SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis is a great technique for identifying your Strengths and Weaknesses and study any Opportunities and Threats you face. It is also a powerful strategic planning tool used to evaluate a project or in a business venture or in any other situation of an organization or individual requiring a decision in pursuit of an objective.6. It involves monitoring the marketing environment internal and external to the organization or individual.wikipedia. Source: http://en.4.

Threats External conditions that are harmful to achieving the objective.1 SWOT Analysis ± Strategic Use Orienting SWOTs to An Objective . Opportunities External conditions that are helpful to achieving the objective. In this case.4.6.wikipedia.If SWOT analysis does not start with defining a desired end state or objective. SWOT analysis can be used to help in the pursuit of that objective. Weaknesses Attributes of the organization that are harmful to achieving the objective. Source: http://en. it runs the risk of being useless. If a clear objective has been identified. SWOTs are: Strengths Attributes of the organization that are helpful to achieving the objective.org/wiki/SWOT_Analysis .

the SWOTs are used as inputs to the creative generation of possible strategies. by asking (usually in groups) and answering each of the following four questions.6.wikipedia. many times: Strengths How can we Use each Strength? Weaknesses How can we Stop each Weakness? Opportunities How can we Exploit each Opportunity? Threats How can we Defend against each Threat? Source: http://en.org/wiki/SWOT_Analysis .4.1 SWOT Analysis ± Creative Use Creative Use of SWOTs ± If the objective seems attainable.

wikipedia.6. SWOT analysis groups key pieces of information into two main categories: Strengths Internal Factors Organization Weaknesses Opportunities External Factors External Environment Threats Source: http://en.1 SWOT Analysis ± Internal and External Factors The aim of any SWOT analysis is to identify the key internal and external factors that are important to achieving the objective.4.org/wiki/SWOT_Analysis .

They can exist only with reference to an objective. Source: http://en. while possible strategies define actions.1 SWOT Analysis ± Errors to Be Avoided Conducting a SWOT analysis before defining and agreeing upon an objective (a desired end state).org/wiki/SWOT_Analysis .4. SWOTs are descriptions of conditions.wikipedia.6. SWOTs should not exist in the abstract. They should be kept separate. SWOTs are sometimes confused with possible strategies. Opportunities external to the company are often confused with strengths internal to the company.

The Group leader must submit their findings in hard-copy or soft-copy format to the lecturer before or during the next class. assess and then make a decision. . Group presentation & discussion. Identify a potential product/service to invest in (e. Do a SWOT analysis to identify the key internal and external factors that are important to consider (refer to the template). or business project/venture to pursue. Do a SWOT analysis.Group Activity Break into groups of 4 ± 6.g. and then make a decision. 5 min 15 min 5 min 15 min Identify a potential product/service/project/venture to invest or pursue. and make a decision. Example: Imagine you want to assess whether to study at UNITAR or not. assess. Assess the findings. Document your SWOT analysis findings in the template provided. Do a SWOT analysis. buying a car).

Select the choice that seems to best meet the needs of the situation. . Define the decision clearly. 6.4 Decision Making Tools CoRT SWOT Analysis Six Thinking Hats Decision Matrix Etc.Summary 6. 3. Implement a plan of action and then monitor the results. Consider all the possible choices. Narrow. 5. making necessary adjustments. 2. 1. Scattered and Fuzzy decision making. Gather all relevant information and evaluate all the pros and cons of each possible choice.3 Decision Making Process Decision making is the cognitive process leading to the selection of a course of action among alternatives.1 What is Decision Making? 6. Hasty. 4.2 Barriers to Good Decision Making 6.

Any Questions? .

The End .

org/wiki/SWOT_Analysis SWOT Tutorial: http://www.htm Teacher in Bad Mood: http://www.com/albums/c369/bukaninsanbiasa/ctmelayumera h.jpg Punk: http://www.sbac.rarepunk.References Online Resources Resource Courseware .edu/~tpl/clipart/Signs%20and%20Symbols/danger%200 2.nhs.uk/folio/mchip/swot.htm Decision Making: http://en.com/images/punkrocker2.webweaver.jpg Siti Nurhaliza: http://i31.jpg Angry Teacher: http://www.photobucket.my/ugb2013/c4/index.gif .pps SWOT Templates: http://www.edu.com/swotanalysisfreetemplate.unitar.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decision_making SWOT Analysis: http://en.wikipedia.Module 4: Decision Making http://cw.nelh.businessballs.nu/clipart/img/education/angryteacher.

Jalan SS 6/12 47301 Kelana Jaya Selangor Darul Ehsan Malaysia E-mail: zaid.Contact Details Zaid Ali Alsagoff UNIVERSITI TUN ABDUL RAZAK 16-5.alsagoff@gmail.com Tel: 603-7627 7238 Fax: 603-7627 7246 .