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adalah ilmu yang mempelajari bentuk
permukaan (landform) dan bentang
permukaan (landscape) alam, termasuk
didalamnya ;
• Deskripsi
• Klasifikasi
• Kejadian
• Perkembangan
• Sejarah
dari permukaan bumi.

Fisiografi (Physiography) :
studi geomorfologi skala regional
(Salisbury, 1907).
>> Identik dengan istilah
Physical Geography.
Geomorfologi cenderung memakai dasar
geologi untuk fisiografi
Geografi menyamakan fisiografi dan
morfologi (murni), unsur geologi tidak
termasuk kedalamnya.

Pertengahan abad 20, geomorfologi-skala regional

(fisiografi) sudah mulai ditinggalkan.

Russel (1958), pengertian fisiografi untuk istilah untuk

bukti/kejadian untuk ilmu lain, terutama geologi.

Istilah fisiografi masih dipakai oleh ahli geologi (Thornbury,

1965; Hunt, 1967),

Ahli geografi lebih membahas interaksi alam-manusia dan

aplikasi dari model dan analisis sistem (Chorley & Kennedy,
Hierarchical Classification of Terrestrial Geomorphological Features by Scale

Order Approximate Spatial Characteristic Units (with examples) Approximate Time

Scale (km2) Scales of Persistence
1 107 Continents, ocean basins 108-109
2 106 Physiographic provinces, shields, depositional plains 108
3 104 Medium-scale tectonic units (sedimentary basins, mountain 107-108
massifs, domal uplifts)
4 102 Smaller tectonics units (fault blocks, volcanoes, troughs, 107
sedimentary subbasins, individual mountain zones)
5 10-102 Large-scale erosional/depositional units (deltas, major valleys, 106
6 10-1-10 Medium-scale erosional/depositional units or landforms 105-106
(floodplains, alluvial fans, moraines, smaller valleys and
7 10-2 Small-scale erosional/depositional units or landforms (ridges, 104-105
terraces, sand dunes)
8 10-4 Larger geomorphic process units (hillslopes, sections of stream 103
9 10-6 Medium-scale geomorphic process units (pools and riffles, river 102
bars, solution pits)
10 10-8 Microscale geomorphic process units (fluvial and eolian ripples,
glacial striations)

Fundamental Concepts of Geomorphology
Concept Description Alternatives
Uniformitarianism Similar geomorphic processes that operate today operated Unusual processes without modern
throughout geologic time. analogs occurred in the geologic past.

Gradualism Relatively frequent, modest-sized processes dominate in Cataclysmic processes and changes are
the progressive changing of the landscapes over long time most important in landscape evolution.
Orderliness Erosional agents on a planetary surface produce an Some landscapes arise from disolderly
orderly sequence of landforms as a function of time processes.

Morphoclimatic Landscapes reflect the influence of certain climatic Geologic structure predominates over
Zonation processes by developing a characteristic assemblage of climate in influencing landform
landforms. assemblages.
Youthfulness of Most of the Earth’s topography is no older than In stable tectonic areas, extensive
Topography Pleistocene. landscapes of Tertiary, or even
Mesozoic, age are preserved.
Legacy of the The geologic and climatic changes of the Pleistocene were Relict landscape elements persist
Pleistocene critical in the shaping of most landscapes. despite Pleistocene changes and
comprise palimpsests.
Modernism Geomorphology is primarily concerned with present-day Geomorphology attains its maximum
processes that shape present day landscapes. usefulness by historical extension,
analyzing ancient conditions.

Simplicity It is necessary to search for simplicity in geomorphological Complexity of geomorphic systems is

systems. more common than simplicity.
Terminology of Geomorphic Systems

Term Usage Example

Cascade A type of system through which energy and mass Movement of water and sediment
flow from one subsystem to another. through a drainage basin.
Feedback Output to one system acts as input to itself. The As river bar is eroded. It becomes
effect can be self-enhancing (positive feedback) more streamlined in shape, which
or self-regulating (negative feedback). reduces erosion (negative
Equilibrium A balance between form and process. Hillslopes form as a balance
between rock resistance and
erosional processes.
Threshold A condition that must be achieved for a system to A landslide can occur only when
pass from one state to another. the driving forces exceed the
resisting forces.
Equifinality The derivation of similar final states in different Polygonal ground may form from
ways from diverse origins. desiccation, freezing, or
Dynamic An equilibrium state maintained by a balance of Rivers maintain an equilibrium of
Equilibrium fluctuations around a constantly changing system channel form as they continue
condition. long-term degradation.
Steady State An equilibrium state maintained around a time Soil clay content increase by
invariant system condition weathering until it reaches
constant value. IntroGeomorfo