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What is Biodiversity?
■ Variety of life in our natural environment – from
the smallest micro-organism to the largest
mammals, including the ecosystems where they
live – forests and mountains, rivers and seas
■ Variety within and between species
Levels of Biodiversity
■ Genetic diversity – the genes are responsible for the
uniqueness of every living organism
■ Species diversity – usually measured in terms of the
total number of species found in particular area
■ Ecosystem diversity – self sustaining collection of
organisms and habitat
Benefits of Biodiversity
■ Provides air and water
■ Provides materials for clothing and shelter
■ Biodiversity heals
■ Brings income to millions
Loss of Biodiversity
• Invasive ‘alien’ species
• Pollution
• Over-exploitation of living resources
• Climate change

Biodiversity Action Plan

• A biodiversity action plan (BAP) is an
internationally recognized program
addressing threatened species and habitats
and is designed to protect and restore
biological systems.
Promoting Biodiversity in
World’s Cities
UK Biodiversity Action Plan
■ The UK was the first country to produce a
national biodiversity action plan, and the UK BAP
described the biological resources of the UK and
provided detailed plans for conservation of these

City of London Local Plan

Developments should promote biodiversity by
incorporating :
• green roofs and walls, soft landscaping and trees;
• features for wildlife, such as nesting boxes and
• Sustainable drainage systems
• planting which will be resilient to a range of climate
• maintenance of habitats within Sites of Importance
for Nature Conservation.
City of London Local Plan
Access to nature and green space in the City

■ Community gardens make a major

difference in pollinating insects
■ The trees, shrubs, and flowers in a
green infrastructure also need to
benefit birds, butterflies, and other
animals. People need to provide
habitat for breeding, shelter, and
food. Where possible, the habitat
needs to be arranged in corridors
where wildlife can safely travel.
Barcelona’s “Plan Verde 2020”
■ envisions a “blooming mosaic of plants and leaf cover” with plans
for five new parks that will connect with other green spaces
■ Barcelona Green Infrastructure and Biodiversity Plan is a strategic
instrument setting out the commitment of local government in
preserving green infrastructure and biodiversity

■ Green infrastructure is the term used to describe the network of

natural and designed vegetation elements within our cities and
towns, in both public and private domains.
■ Stands to learn a great deal through
biological introspection
■ Their target is to increase the amount
of natural areas, including forests and
wetlands, by 25 hectares in 2020
■ Vancouver Convention Centre -
Completed in 2009, the now-iconic
multi-pitched ‘living roofs’ of the West
Building were envisioned as a native
meadow that would provide food and
habitat for birds and insects alike.

Vancouver Convention Centre

■ Home to over 2,000 plant species, 65 mammal species, and 109 reptile species

Giant clam Female Pixie Scaly Anteater

Neptune Cup Sponge Hawksbill turtle

■ Bodiversity and greenery have positive impact on
health and the ability to mitigate local climate
change impacts.
■ Reduce urban heat island effect, air pollution
and storm water runoff and provide shade and
cool ambience temperature.
■ Mangroves along coastlines buffer a city’s coast
against the increased runoffs from intense
storms due to climate change.
■ Enhancing urban greenery also makes economic
sense. Bishan Park
Park Royal Hotel
Bishan Park
The Interlace

■ Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 134, 2015, pp. 127-138
■ Journal of Environmental Management by L.W. Sussams, W.R. Sheate, R.P. Eales,
Volume 147, 2015, pp. 184-193
■ Ecosystem Services by Rafael Calderón-Contreras Volume 23, February 2017, Pages