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SCORES

50-item test in .

35 47 44 42 38

49 43 46 48 48

50 34 48 46 41

40 44 36 47 47

47 49 46 47 46

A.

Classes f

11 – 22 3

23 – 34 5

35 – 46 11

47 – 58 19

59 – 70 14

71 – 82 6

83 – 94 2

______________

n = 60

B.

BSED Math 7

BSEDFil 14

BSED English 12

BSED Science 16

AB Econ. 11

_____________

n = 60

DEFINITION OF TERMS

QUANTITATIVE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION

TABLE when data are tabulated based on

numerical classes or interval.

QUALITATIVE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION

TABLE – when data are tabulated based on

description.

CLASS LIMITS – are the lowest and the highest

value that can go in each class.

LOWER CLASS LIMIT – is the lowest value that

can be entered in a class.

UPPER CLASS LIMIT – is the highest value that

can be entered in a class.

CLASS BOUNDARY – is considered the “true

limit”. It is a value midway the upper limit of a

certain class and the lower limit of the next

class. If the class limits are simple round

numbers, the class boundary can be obtained

by simply adding 0.5 to the upper limit and

subtracting 0.5 from the lower limit.

CLASS WIDTH OR CLASS SIZE - is represented

by c or i. It can be obtained using several methods.

a. Getting the difference between the boundaries of a

certain class.

b. Getting the difference between two successive

lower limits or two successive upper limits.

FREQUENCY – which is denoted by f is the

number of values that fall in a certain class.

CLASS MARK OR MIDPOINT – is a value that acts

as representative of a certain class. It can be

obtained by using the relation;

X = U1 + L1/2

CONSTRUCTION OF A FREQUENCY

DISTRIBUTION

2. Get the RANGE.

3. Determine the number of classes. In some instances, the

number of classes can be approximated by the relation,

K = 1 + 3.3 log n

4. Determine the size of the class interval

C = R/k

5. Construct the class.

6. Determine the “f” of each class.

DERIVED FREQUENCY

DISTRIBUTION

a. Relative frequency distribution

b. Cumulative frequency distribution

RELATIVE FREQUENCY

DISTRIBUTION

by the sample size and multiplying the result by

100%.

Given by the relation

%f = f/n X 100

Respondents of the Study

SM

Subj n % R

A 35 23 3

B 45 29 2

C 75 48 1

CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY

DISTRIBUTION

Can be obtained by simply adding the

class frequencies.

Tries to determine “partial sums” from

the data classified in terms of classes.

Answer problems like;

a. Number of students who got a passing

mark.

b. Number of students who got a failing

grade.

TWO TYPES OF CUMULATIVE

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION

A. Less than cumulative frequency distribution –

refers to the distribution whose frequencies are

less than or below the upper class boundary they

correspond to.

B. Greater than cumulative frequency distribution –

refers to the distribution whose frequencies are

greater than or above the lower boundary they

correspond to.

Example:

WORKSHOP

Example:

A researcher assumed that age is one of the

factors affecting the level of development-

orientedness of teachers. He was able to gather

the ages of 75 teachers shown below.

49,54,53,48,37,41,33,45,44,46,54,41

53,46,46,48,35,46,42,56,30,39,48,52

45,48,31,55,43,25,44,44,72,31,54,32

48,57,44,65,26,43,50,46,37,51,50,49

38,38,52,48,66,39,48,59,59,47,58,63

56,38,46,53,53,46,43,48,54,45,44,61

49,33,39

I. Construct a frequency distribution table

with 8 classes. Also include the following:

a. Class mark

b. Class boundary

c. Relative frequency distribution table

d. Greater than cumulative frequency

distribution table.

e. Less than cumulative frequency

distribution table

II. Determine

a. Class width

b. Lower class boundary of the 3rd class

c. Lowest lower limit

d. No. of teachers younger than 36.5.

e. No. of teachers older than 54.5.

f. No. of teachers younger than 66.5.

g. Upper limit of the 6th class.

h. No. of teachers younger than 72.5.

i. Upper boundary of the 6th class.

j. No. of teachers older than 60.5.

MEASURES OF CENTRAL

TENDENCY

simple figure which is a representative of the

whole class

when arranged according to magnitude, it tends

to lie centrally within the set

COMMON MEASURES OF CENTRAL

TENDENCY

A. MODE

is defined as the value of the term that appears

most frequently

a distribution may have or may not have a mode

Ex.: Set A : 15, 15, 16, 18, 21

Set B : 15, 16, 17, 20, 19

B. MEDIAN

when the distribution is arranged according to

magnitude.

When the total number of the item is odd, the

median is the middle item. When the total

number is even, there would be two middle

values.

Get the median by adding the two middle items

and divide the sum by 2

B : 15, 20, 18, 20, 17, 21

C. MEAN

the sum of all the items divided by the

total number of items

Php 110, Php115, Php118, Php120, Php124

= Php117.40

WEIGHTED MEAN

when some values are given importance or it

takes into consideration the proper weights of

the scores according to their relative importance

Ex.: If the final examination in a class in statistics is

given the weight 2, the average of quizzes the

weight 3, a project 1, and a student got the grades

90, 88, 87 respectively, what would be the mean

grade of the student?

Mean = 2 (90 ) + 3 ( 88 ) + 1 ( 87 ) / 6 = 88.5

grade is

Mean = 90 + 88 + 87 / 3 = 88.33

COMPUTATION OF THE MEAN

FROM GROUPED DATA

Data which are arranged in a frequency

distribution are called grouped data

When the number of items is too large, it is

best to compute for the mean presenting the

data in a frequency distribution table

A. LONG METHOD: Mean = ∑ fx / n

Classes f X fx

11 -22 3 16.5 49.5

23 – 34 5 28.5 142.5

35 – 46 11 40.5 445.5

47 – 58 19 52.5 997.5

59 – 70 14 64.5 903.0

71 – 82 6 76.5 459.0

83 – 94 2 88.5 177.0

_______ _________

n = 60 ∑ fx = 3,174

Mean = 3, 174 / 60

= 52.9

B. Coded Deviation Method Mean = Assumed mean + ( ∑ fd / n

)i

Classes f d fd

11 – 22 3 -3 -9

23 – 34 5 -2 -10 ] = - 30

35 – 46 11 -1 -11

47 – 58 19 0 0

59 – 70 14 1 14

71 – 82 6 2 12 ] = 32

83 – 94 2 3 6

___________ ______________

n = 60 ∑ fd = 2

Mean = 52.5 + ( 2 / 60 ) 12

= 52.5 + ( 2 / 5 ) 1

= 52.5 + ( 0.4 )

= 52.5 + 0.4

= 52.9

COMPUTATION OF THE MODE

FROM GROUPED DATA

the mode in a frequency distribution is found

within the class with the highest frequency

the computing formula is given by

Mode = LCBmo + ( Δ1 / Δ1 + Δ2 ) i

11 – 22 3

23 – 34 5

35 – 46 11] = 8

47 – 58 19

59 – 70 14 ] = 5

71 – 82 6

83 – 94 2

________

N = 60

Mode = 46.5 + ( 8 / 8 + 5 ) 12

= 46.5 + ( 8 / 13 ) 12

= 46.5 + ( 96 / 13 )

= 46.5 + ( 7.384615385 )

= 46.5 + 7.384615385

= 53.88

COMPUTATION OF THE MEDIAN FOR

GROUPED DATA

determine first the value which divides the distribution into

two equal parts

we have to also consider the “less than cumulative frequency”

computing formula is given by

____________

Fmd

Classes f <cumf

11 – 22 3 3

23 – 34 5 8

35 – 46 11 19]<cumfb

47 – 58 19] Fmd

59 – 70 14

71 – 82 6

83 – 94 2

________

N = 60

Median = 46.5 + ( 30 - 19 / 19 ) 12

= 46.5 + ( 11 /19 ) 12

= 46.5 + (132 / 19 )

= 46.5 + ( 6.947368421 )

= 46.5 + 6.947368421

= 53.45

QUANTILES

the quantiles are natural extension of the

median concept in that they are values

which divide a set of data into equal parts

for all the quantiles, it must be clearly

understood that the item values are also

arranged according to magnitude

the uses, limitations, computation of the

quantiles are very similar with that of the

median

QUARTILE

divides the distribution into four (4) equal parts

These are values Q1, Q2, Q3

Computing formula is given by

______________

FQk

_____________

FQ3

Classes f <cumf

11 – 22 3 3

23 – 34 5 8

35 – 46 11 19

47 – 58 19 38] <cumfb

59 – 70 14] FQ3

71 – 82 6

83 – 94 2

_______

N = 60

Q3 = 58.5 + ( 45 - 38 / 14 ) 12

= 58.5 + ( 7 / 7 ) 6

= 58.5 + ( 1 ) 6

= 58.5 + ( 6 )

= 58.5 + 6

= 64.5

DECILE

divides the distribution into ten (10) equal parts

these are D1, D2, D3, …

computing formula is given by

______________

FDk

______________

FD9

Classes f <cumf

11 – 22 3 3

23 – 34 5 8

35 – 46 11 19

47 – 58 19 38

59 – 70 14 52] <cumfb

71 – 82 6 ] FD9

83 – 94 2

______

N = 60

D9 = 70.5 + ( 54 - 52 /6 ) 12

= 70.5 + ( 2 /6 ) 12

= 70.5 + ( 24 /6 )

= 70.5 +4

= 74.5

PERCENTILE

divides the distribution into one hundred (100)

equal parts

these are P1, P2, P3, …

computing formula is given by

________________

FPk

_________________

FP89

Classes f <cumf

11 – 22 3 3

23 – 34 5 8

35 – 46 11 19

47 – 58 19 38

59 – 70 14 52

71 – 82 6

83 – 94 2

_______

N = 60

P89 = 70.5 + ( 53.40 - 52/ 6 ) 12

= 70.5 + ( 1.4 /6 ) 12

= 70.5 + (16.8 /6 )

= 70.5 + ( 2.8 )

= 70.5 + 2.8

= 73.3

Example

Classes f

25 – 30 3

31 – 36 6

37 – 42 11

43 – 48 27

49 – 54 16

55 – 60 7

61 – 66 4

67 – 72 1

_____________

N = 75

Construct the following:

a. classmark or midpoint

b. class boundaries

c. relative frequency distribution

c. less than cumulative frequency distribution

d. greater than cumulative frequency

distribution

Determine:

a. Class size

b. Class boundary of the 3rd class interval

c. Lowest lower limit

d. Highest upper boundary

e. No. of people belonging to the upper boundary 54.5

f. No. of people belonging to the lower boundary 54.5

g. Classmark of the 6th class interval

h. No. of people belonging to the lower boundary 42.5

i. No. of people belonging to the upper boundary 36.5

j. Highest upper class limit

Compute the following:

a. Mean

b. Mode

c. Median

d. 7th decile

e. 3rd quartile

f. 1st quartile

g. 45th percentile

h. 9th percentile

i. 35th percentile

j. 95th percentile

k. 55th percentile

l. 65th percentile

m. 8th decile

n. 3rd decile

o. 85th percentile

MEASURES OF VARIABILITY

these are measures which describe the

extent of scattering of the individual items

about the average or point of central

location

the measures of central tendency are of little

value unless the degree of spread or

variability which occurs about the items are

given

the description of a set of data becomes

more meaningful if the degree of clustering

about the central point is measured

Consider the five sets of

observations:

A: 15, 15, 17, 18, 20

B: 15, 16, 16, 18, 20

C: 14, 15, 16, 19, 21

D: 11, 13, 18, 18, 25

E: 14, 15, 18, 19, 19

COMMON MEASURES OF

VARIABILITY

Range

Semi-Interquartile Range

Mean Absolute Deviation

Standard Deviation

1. RANGE

variability.

It is the difference between the highest and

the lowest items in the distribution.

In a frequency distribution table, the range is

the difference between the upper limit of the

highest class interval and the lowest limit of

the lowest class interval.

Example

Classes f

11 -22 3

23 -34 5

35 -46 11

47 -58 19

59 -70 14

71 -82 6

83 -94 2

____________

N= 60

SEMI-INTERQUARTILE RANGE

Sometimes called quartile deviation

It is the amount of spread between the

first quartile and the median, or the

median and the third quartile.

The dispersion is in the middle half of the

items arranged in an array.

The formula used to compute the quartile

deviation is

QD = Q3 – Q1 / 2

improvement of the range in the

approximation of the spread of the values of

the items, still it does not reflect the variability

of the entire set of values of the items.

Example

Classes f <cumf

11- 22 3 3

23- 34 5 8] <cumfb Q1

35- 46 11] fQ1 19

47- 58 19 38] <cumfb Q3

59- 70 14] fQ3 52

71- 82 6 58

83- 94 2 60

________

n = 60

Sol’n:

Q1 = LCBQ1 + ( n/4 - <cumfb ) i

____________

fQ1

= 34.5 + ( 15 – 8 ) 12

______

11

= 34.5 + ( 7/11 ) 12

= 34.5 + ( 84/11 )

= 34.5 + ( 7.63636364 )

= 34.5 + 7.63636364

= 42.14

Q3 = LCBQ3 + ( 3n/4 - <cumfb ) i

_____________

fQ3

= 58.5 + ( 45 – 38 ) 12

________

14

= 58.5 + ( 7/7 )6

= 58.5 + ( 1 ) 6

= 58.5 + 6

= 64.5

QD = Q3 – Q1/2

= 64.5 – 42.14/ 2

= 22.36/2

= 11.18

MEAN ABSOLUTE DEVIATION

In computing for the mean absolute deviation, we

consider the extent to which each individual score in a

distribution deviates from the mean of that

distribution.

We subtract the mean from each score to determine

the deviation or the distance of each score from the

mean.

x = X – mean

x = each score’s deviation from the mean

X = particular score

The formula used to compute the MAD is

MAD = ∑ / X – mean /

__________

N

Example 1: Consider the five scores of the students

in a certain 20-item test: 15, 15, 17, 18, 20

X X – mean / X – mean /

15 15 -17 = -2 2

15 15 -17 = -2 2

17 17 -17 = 0 0

18 18 -17 = 1 1

20 20- 17 = 3 3

____ ____________

∑X=85 ∑ / X – mean / = 8

MAD = ∑ / X –mean /

____________

n

MAD = ∑ / X –mean /

____________

n

= 8/5

=1.6

Example 2

Classes f X X – mean/ X – mean / f/ X – mean /

11 – 22 3 16.5 16.5 – 52.9 36.4 109.2

23 – 34 5 28.5 28.5 – 52.9 24.4 122.0

35 – 46 11 40.5 40.5 – 52.9 12.4 136.4

47 – 58 19 52.5 52.5 – 52.9 0. 4 7.6

59 – 70 14 64.5 64.5 – 52.9 11.6 162.4

71 – 82 6 76.5 76.5 – 52.9 23.6 141.6

83 – 94 2 88.5 88.5 – 52.9 35.6 71.2

____________

∑f/ X – mean / =750.4

STANDARD DEVIATION

Is a special form of average deviation from the

mean.

All the individual values of the items in the

distribution are taken into consideration.

Denoted by s or sd is the positive square root of

the arithmetic mean of the squared deviations

from the mean of the distribution.

It is important as a measure of heterogeneity or

unevenness within a set of observations.

If the S of the IQ of say 50 students is numerically

big, then we can say that there is heterogeneity in

their intelligence. If the S is small we can say that

there is homogeneity in their intelligence.

STANDARD DEVIATION FROM

UNGROUPED DATA

Example: Consider the five (5) scores of students in a 20-item test: 15, 15, 17, 18, 20.

15 15 – 17 -2 4

15 15 – 17 -2 4

17 17 – 17 0 0

18 18 – 17 1 1

20 20 – 17 3 9

_____________

∑ ( X – mean )2 = 18

S = √ ∑( X – mean )2/ n

= √ 18 / 5

= √3.6

= 1.8973666

= 1.9

Note

There are occasions when the formula

and procedure for application stated

above is inconvenient to use for

computation.

This is especially true when the deviations

from the mean are not simple round

numbers and they are not most of the

time.

The formula used to compute is given by

S = √ ∑x2/ n – ( ∑x/n )2

Use the same problem as in the first

computation.

X X2

15 225

15 225

17 289

18 324

20 400

___ _______

85 1,463

S = √1,463/5 – (85/5)2

= √292.6 – ( 17)2

= √292.6 – 289

= √3.6

= 1.9

COMPUTATION OF THE

STANDARD DEVIATION FROM

GROUPED DATA

There are three ways of computing the

Standard from grouped data.

The computation is essentially the same

as that of the ungrouped data except that

X is NOT the value of the item, but

rather the class mark for each of the class

intervals.

Another point of difference is the use of

the “f” as a factor in the formula.

LONG METHOD A

Classes f X X – mean ( X – mean )2 f(X – mean )2

23 – 34 5 28.5 28.5 – 52.9 595.36 2976.8

35 – 46 11 40.5 40.5 – 52.9 153.76 1691.36

47 – 58 19 52.5 52.5 – 52.9 0.16 3.04

59 – 70 14 64.5 64.5 – 52.9 134.56 1883.84

71 – 82 6 76.5 76.5 – 52.9 556.96 3341.76

83 – 94 2 88.5 88.5 – 52.9 1267.36 2534.72

______________

16,406.4

S = √∑f( X – mean )2

____________

n-1

= √16,406.4

________

60-1

= √278.0745763/

= 16.68

LONG METHOD B

Classes f X fx X2 fx2

11 – 22 3 16.5 49.5 272.25 816.75

23 – 34 5 28.5 142.5 812.25 4061.2

47 – 58 19 52.5 997.5 2756.25 52368.75

59 – 70 14 64.5 903 4160.25 58243.5

71 – 82 6 76.5 459 5852.25 35113.5

83 – 94 2 88.5 177 7832.25 15664.5

_________ ______________

3174 184311

S = √ ∑fx2 - ( ∑fx )2

______ _________

n – 1 n ( n – 1)

= √184311 - ( 3174 )2

_____ ________

60 – 1 60 ( 60 – 1)

= √184311 - 10,074,276

_____ _________

59 60 ( 59 )

= √3123.9152542 - 10,074,276

_________

3540

= √3123.9152542 - 2845.840678

= √278.0745762

= 16.68

CODED DEVIATION METHOD

Classes f d fd d2 fd2

11 – 22 3 -3 -9 9 27

23 – 34 5 -2 -10 4 20

35 – 46 11 -1 -11] -30 1 11

47 – 58 19 0

59 – 70 14 1 14 1 14

71 – 82 6 2 12 4 24

83 – 94 2 3 6] 32 9 18

_____ _______

2 114

S = i √∑fd2 - ( ∑fd )2

_____ ______

n–1 n (n -1)

= 12 √ 114 - ( 2 )2

______ ______

60 -1 60(60 -1)

= 12 √ 114 - 4

_____ _______

59 60( 59 )

= 12 √ 1.93220339 - 0.0011299435

= 12 √1.93107345

= 12 ( 1.38963069 )

= 16.68

Illustration: The following are the

scores obtained by the 25

students who took a 40-item

test;

25, 24, 30, 27, 28, 15, 17, 18,25,

35, 22, 31, 30, 23, 32, 16, 26,33

27, 20, 21, 28, 23, 34, 37

Compute for:

1. Mean

2. Proficiency Level

3. Standard Deviation

4. Make an interpretation about

the computed statistical

measures.

Solution

A. Freq. Dist.

f

15 – 18 4

19 – 22 3

23 – 26 6

27 – 30 6

31 – 34 4

35 – 38 2

n= 25

B. Mean

Classes f x fx

15 – 18 4 16.5 66

19 – 22 3 20.5 61.5

23 – 26 6 24.5 147.0

27 – 30 6 28.5 171.0

31 – 34 4 32.5 130.0

35 – 38 2 36.5 73.0

____ ______

n = 25 ∑fx = 648.5

Mean = ∑ fx/ n

= 648.5/25

= 25.94

C. Proficiency Level

PL = Mean/No. of Items X 100%

= 25.94/ 40 X 100%

= 64.85%

D. Standard Deviation

S = i √∑fd2 - ( ∑fd )2

_____ ______

n–1 n (n -1)

Classes f d fd d2 fd2

15 – 18 4 -2 -8 4 16

19 – 22 3 -1 -3 1 3

23 – 26 6 0

27 – 30 6 1 6 1 6

31 – 34 4 2 8 4 16

35 – 38 2 3 6 9 18

___ ___ ____

n = 25 ∑fd=9 ∑fd2= 59

SD = 4 √ 59 - ( 9 ) 2

25 -1 25(25 –1)

= 4 √ 59 - 81

24 25(24)

= 4 √ 2.45833333 - 81

600

= 4 √ 2.45833333 – 0.135

= 4 √ 2.3233333

= 4 (1.52424844)

= 6.09699376 or 6.10 heterogeneous

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