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# Concentration of Solution

Solvent Solute
Concentration of Solution

## Moles of solute Mol

•Molarity (M) = =
Liter of solution L
•Parts ratio amount of solute (g or ml)
= amount of solution (g or ml) (10 2) or (106) or (109)

Moles of solute

## •Molality (m) = Moles of solute

Kilograms of solvent
Molarity

## 12.6 g of NaCl are dissolved in water making

344mL of solution. Calculate the molar
concentration.

 1molNaCl 
12.6 g NaCl  
moles solute  58.44 gNaCl 
M= =
L solution  1L 
344 mL   solution
 1000mL 
= 0.627 M NaCl
Molarity

## How many moles of NaCl are contained in 250.mL

of solution with a concentration of 1.25 M?

## moles solute therefore the

M=
L solution solution contains
 1L  1.25 mol NaCl
250. mL   = 0.250 L solution
 1000mL  1 L solution
Volume x concentration = moles solute
 1.25 mol NaCl 
0.250 L solution   = 0.313 mol NaCl
 1 L solution 
Molarity

## What volume of solution will contain 15 g of NaCl

if the solution concentration is 0.75 M?

## moles solute therefore the

M= solution contains
L solution
 1 mol NaCl  0.75 mol NaCl
15 g NaCl   = 0.257 mol
 58.44 g NaCl  1 L solution
moles solute ÷ concentration = volume solution
 1 L solution 
0.257 mol NaCl   = 0.34 L solution
 0.75 mol NaCl 
% Concentration

mass solute
• % (w/w) = x 100
mass solution

mass solute
• % (w/v) = x 100
volume solution

volume solute
• % (v/v) = x 100
volume solution

## Mass and volume units must match.

(g & mL) or (Kg & L)
% Concentration
Example Problem 1
What is the concentration in %w/v of a solution containing 39.2 g
of potassium nitrate in 177 mL of solution?
mass solute 39.2 g
% (w/v) =  100  100 = 22.1 % w/v
volume solution 177 mL

Example Problem 2
What is the concentration in %v/v of a solution containing 3.2 L of
ethanol in 6.5 L of solution?
volume solute 3.2 L
% (v/v) =  100  100 = 49 % v/v
volume solution 6.5L
% Concentration
Example Problem 3
What volume of 1.85 %w/v solution is needed to
provide 5.7 g of solute?
1.85 g solute
% (w/v) =
100 mL solution
We know: We want to get:
g solute
g solute and mL solution
mL solution

 100 mL solution 
5.7 g solute   = 310 mL Solution
 1.85 g solute 
g solute ÷ concentration = volume solution
Parts per million/billion (ppm & ppb)
mass solute mg
• ppm = × 106 or = ppm
volume solution L
mass solute 9 g
• ppb = × 10 or = ppb
volume solution L

AND
Mass and volume units must match.
For very low
(g & mL) or (Kg & L) concentrations:

ng
parts per trillion = ppt
L
ppm & ppb
Example Problem 1
An Olympic sized swimming pool
contains 2,500,000 L of water. If 1 tsp of
salt (NaCl) is dissolved in the pool, what
is the concentration in ppm?
1 teaspoon = 6.75 g NaCl
or
g solute mg solute
ppm = ×106 ppm =
mL solution L solution

1 g 
mg

2.5×10 L  1000
6
1 L 
mL
2.5×106 L

## ppm = 0.0027 ppm = 0.0027

ppm & ppb
Example Problem 2
An Olympic sized swimming pool
contains 2,500,000 L of water. If 1 tsp of
salt (NaCl) is dissolved in the pool, what
is the concentration in ppb?
1 teaspoon = 6.75 g NaCl
or
g solute  g solute
ppb = ×109 ppb =
mL solution L solution

ppb =
6.75 g
×109 6.75 g  106 mg
1 g 
2.5×10 L  1000
6
1 L 
mL ppb =
2.5×106 L
ppb = 2.7 ppb = 2.7
Mole Fraction
B A
A B
A A
A B

B A B A A
A

moles of A A
A + B

moles of B B
A + B

## Since A + B make up the

entire mixture, their mole
fractions will add up to one.
c A  cB  1.00
Mole Fraction
Example Problem 1
In our glass of iced tea, we have added 3 tbsp
of sugar (C12H22O11). The volume of the tea
(water) is 325 mL. What is the mole fraction
of the sugar in the tea solution?
(1 tbsp sugar ≈ 25 g)
First, we find the moles of both the
solute and the solvent.
 1 mol C12 H 22 O11   1 mol H 2 O 
75.g C12 H22O11   = 0.219 mol 325mL H 2O   = 18.1 mol
 342 g C12
H 22 11 
O  18.0 g H 2 O 
Next, we substitute the moles of both into the mole fraction equation.

χ sugar =
moles solute
total moles solution
=
0.219 mol sugar
(0.219 mol + 18.1 mol)
 0.012
Mole Fraction
Example Problem 2
Air is about 78% N2, 21% O2, and 0.90% Ar.
What is the mole fraction of each gas?
First, we find the moles of each gas. We assume
100. grams total and change each % into grams.
 1 mol N 2   1 mol O2 
78g N2   = 2.79 mol 21g O2   = 0.656 mol
 28 g N 2   32 g O 2 

##  1 mol Ar  Next, we substitute the moles of each into

0.90g Ar   = 0.0225 mol
 40. g Ar  the mole fraction equation.

χ =
moles N 2
N2 total moles χ =
moles O 2
O2 total moles
χ Ar
=
moles Ar
total moles
2.79 mol N 2 0.656 mol O2 0.0225 mol Ar
= = =
(2.79 + 0.656 + 0.0225) (2.79 + 0.656 + 0.0225) (2.79 + 0.656 + 0.0225)

##  0.804  0.189  0.00649

Molal (m)
Example Problem 1
If the cooling system in your
car has a capacity of 14 qts,
and you want the coolant to be protected from freezing
down to -25°F, the label says to combine 6 quarts of
antifreeze with 8 quarts of water. What is the molal
concentration of the antifreeze in the mixture?
mol solute antifreeze is ethylene glycol C2H6O2
m= 1 qt antifreeze = 1053 grams
Kg solvent 1 qt water = 946 grams

##  1053 g C2 H 6O2   1mol C2 H 6O 2 

6 Qts    62.1 g C H O 
 1 Qt C 2 6 2  
H O 2 6 2 
m= = 13 m
 946 g H 2O   1 Kg 
8 Qts    1000 g 
 1 Qt H 2 O   