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Group 6: Stars

6 Ilagan, Hansel
14 Pili, John Matthew
21 Butuan, Genouwyne
28 Enriquez, Yunah
32 Limbo, Andrea
36 Sotis, Alexandra
• A star is type of astronomical
object consisting of a
luminous spheroid of plasma held
together by its own gravity. The nearest
star to Earth is the Sun. Many other
stars are visible to the naked eye from
Earth during the night, appearing as a
multitude of fixed luminous points in
the sky due to their immense distance
from Earth. Historically, the most
prominent stars were grouped
into constellations and asterisms, the
brightest of which gained proper
names. Astronomers have
assembled star catalogues that identify
the known stars and provide
standardized stellar designations.
However, most of the stars in
the Universe, including all stars outside
our galaxy, the Milky Way, are invisible
to the naked eye from Earth. Indeed,
most are invisible from Earth even
through the most powerful telescopes.
Life Cycle of a Star: First Stage, Nebula
• A nebula is a cloud of gas (hydrogen) and
dust in space. Nebulae are the birthplaces
of stars. There are different types of nebula.
• An Emission Nebula e.g. such as Orion
nebula, glows brightly because the gas in it
is energized by the stars that have already
formed within it.
• In a Reflection Nebula, starlight reflects on
the grains of dust in a nebula. The nebula
surrounding the Pleiades Cluster is typical
of a reflection nebula.
• Dark Nebula also exist. These are dense
clouds of molecular hydrogen which
partially or completely absorb the light
from stars behind them e.g. the Horsehead
Nebula in Orion.
Second Stage, Star
• A star is a luminous globe of gas producing
its own heat and light by nuclear reactions
(nuclear fusion). They are born from
nebulae and consist mostly of hydrogen
and helium gas. Surface temperatures
range from 2000C to above 30,000C, and
the corresponding colors from red to blue-
white. The brightest stars have masses
100 times that of the Sun and emit as
much light as millions of Suns. They live
for less than a million years before
exploding as supernovae. The faintest
stars are the red dwarfs, less than one-
thousandth the brightness of the Sun.
• The smallest mass possible for a star is
about 8% that of the Sun (80 times the
mass of the planet Jupiter), otherwise
nuclear reactions do not take place.
Third Stage, Red Giant

This is a large bright star with a cool
surface. It is formed during the later
stages of the evolution of a star like
the Sun, as it runs out of hydrogen fuel
at its center. Red giants have
diameter's between 10 and 100 times
that of the Sun. They are very bright
because they are so large, although
their surface temperature is lower
than that of the Sun, about 2000-
3000C.
Very large stars (red giants) are often
called Super Giants. These stars have
diameters up to 1000 times that of the
Sun and have luminosities often
1,000,000 times greater than the Sun.
Fourth Stage, Red Dwarf
• These are very cool, faint
and small stars,
approximately one tenth
the mass and diameter of
the Sun. They burn very
slowly and have
estimated lifetimes of 100
billion years. Proxima
Centauri and Barnard's
Star are red dwarfs.
Fifth/Last Stage, Supernova
• This is the explosive death of a star, and
often results in the star obtaining the
brightness of 100 million suns for a
short time. There are two general types
of Supernova:-
• Type I These occur in binary star
systems in which gas from one star falls
on to a white dwarf, causing it to
explode.
• Type II These occur in stars ten times or
more as massive as the Sun, which
suffer runaway internal nuclear
reactions at the ends of their lives,
leading to an explosion. They leave
behind neutron stars and black
holes. Supernovae are thought to be
main source of elements heavier than
hydrogen and helium
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