0 Up votes0 Down votes

10 views27 pagesChapter 12 - Thermodynamic Property Relations

Mar 18, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PPTX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Chapter 12 - Thermodynamic Property Relations

© All Rights Reserved

10 views

Chapter 12 - Thermodynamic Property Relations

© All Rights Reserved

- Perfect IA
- 69243318 Solved Problems in Thermodynamics
- The Terrible Beauty of Thermodynamics
- Heat Rate and Efficiency 15 Desember 2014 (NDC Test)
- Gas Pipeline
- EOCQ_ans_22
- etg
- Refsys Terms - Lee
- merination notes
- Exam2 Key 1999
- NR 220802 Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics I
- Unit 5
- Ch06 Slides
- chap4-4
- 6DSUPP Desuperheater Supplement Brochure
- Assignment
- rrrrr
- Manual de Modelos Termodinamicos
- Unit 3, Lesson 06, Introduction to State Functions and Hess's Law
- Alp Solutions Thermodynamics Eng Ja Jb

You are on page 1of 27

SEM 1 (2015/2016)

1

Objectives

basis for many thermodynamic relations.

• Develop the Clapeyron equation and determine

the enthalpy of vaporization from P, v, and T

measurements alone.

• Develop general relations for cv, cp, du, dh, and

ds that are valid for all pure substances and real

gases.

2

THE MAXWELL RELATIONS

The equations that relate the partial derivatives of properties P, v, T, and s

to each other of a simple compressible system are called the Maxwell relations.

They are obtained from the four Gibbs equations by exploiting the

exactness of the differentials of thermodynamic properties.

Helmholtz function

Gibbs function

valuable in thermodynamics because

they provide a means of determining

the change in entropy, which cannot

be measured directly, by simply

measuring the changes in properties P,

v, and T.

These Maxwell relations are limited to

simple compressible systems.

Maxwell relations

3

4

THE

CLAPEYRON

EQUATION

5

Clapeyron

equation

to determine the enthalpy of

vaporization hfg at a given

temperature by simply measuring

the slope of the saturation curve

on a P-T diagram and the specific

volume of saturated liquid and

saturated vapor at the given

temperature.

diagram is constant at a constant T or P.

General form of the Clapeyron

equation when the subscripts 1

and 2 indicate the two phases.

6

0.036012 – 0.0008160 0.035196 m3/kg

(0.035196 m3/kg)

182.60 kJ/kg

The Clapeyron equation can be simplified for liquid–vapor and solid–vapor

phase changes by utilizing some approximations.

At low pressures

Treating vapor as

an ideal gas The Clapeyron–Clausius

equation can be used to

Substituting these equations into the Clapeyron determine the variation of

equation saturation pressure with

temperature.

It can also be used in the

solid–vapor region by

replacing hfg by hig (the

enthalpy of sublimation) of

the substance.

Clapeyron–Clausius

equation

8

GENERAL RELATIONS FOR du, dh, ds, cv, AND cp

• The state postulate established that the state of a simple compressible system is

completely specified by two independent, intensive properties.

• Therefore, we should be able to calculate all the properties of a system such as

internal energy, enthalpy, and entropy at any state once two independent,

intensive properties are available.

• The calculation of these properties from measurable ones depends on the

availability of simple and accurate relations between the two groups.

• In this section we develop general relations for changes in internal energy,

enthalpy, and entropy in terms of pressure, specific volume, temperature, and

specific heats alone.

• We also develop some general relations involving specific heats.

• The relations developed will enable us to determine the changes in these

properties.

• The property values at specified states can be determined only after the selection

of a reference state, the choice of which is quite arbitrary. 9

Internal

Energy

Changes

10

Internal

Energy

Changes

11

The enthalpy to be a function of T and P, that is, h=h(T, P), Enthalpy

and take its total differential:

Changes

12

13

Entropy Changes

14

Specific Heats cv and cp

15

16

Mayer

relation

17

Mayer

relation

Conclusions from Mayer relation:

1. The right hand side of the equation is always

greater than or equal to zero. Therefore, we

conclude that

zero as the absolute temperature approaches

zero.

3. The two specific heats are identical for truly

incompressible substances since v constant.

The difference between the two specific heats

is very small and is usually disregarded for

substances that are nearly incompressible, such

as liquids and solids.

The volume expansivity (also called the coefficient of

volumetric expansion) is a measure of the change in

volume with temperature at constant pressure.

18

19

THE ∆h, ∆u, AND ∆s OF REAL GASES

• Gases at low pressures behave as ideal gases and obey the relation

Pv = RT. The properties of ideal gases are relatively easy to evaluate

since the properties u, h, cv, and cp depend on temperature only.

• At high pressures, however, gases deviate considerably from ideal-

gas behavior, and it becomes necessary to account for this deviation.

• In Chap. 3 we accounted for the deviation in properties P, v, and T by

either using more complex equations of state or evaluating the

compressibility factor Z from the compressibility charts.

• Now we extend the analysis to evaluate the changes in the enthalpy,

internal energy, and entropy of nonideal (real) gases, using the

general relations for du, dh, and ds developed earlier.

20

Enthalpy Changes of Real Gases

The enthalpy of a real gas, in general,

depends on the pressure as well as on

the temperature. Thus the enthalpy

change of a real gas during a process

can be evaluated from the general

relation for dh

the first term vanishes. For a constant-

pressure process, dP = 0, and the

second term vanishes.

An alternative process path to evaluate

the enthalpy changes of real gases.

21

Using a superscript asterisk (*) to denote an ideal-gas state, we can express

the enthalpy change of a real gas during process 1-2 as

departure, and it represents the variation of the

enthalpy of a gas with pressure at a fixed temperature.

The calculation of enthalpy departure requires a

knowledge of the P-v-T behavior of the gas. In the

absence of such data, we can use the relation Pv = ZRT,

where Z is the compressibility factor. Substituting,

22

Enthalpy

departure

factor

The values of Zh are presented in graphical form as a function of PR

(reduced pressure) and TR (reduced temperature) in the generalized

enthalpy departure chart.

Zh is used to determine the deviation of the enthalpy of a gas at a given P

and T from the enthalpy of an ideal gas at the same T.

For a real gas

during a

process 1-2

from ideal gas tables

Using the definition

23

Entropy Changes of Real Gases

General relation for ds

the entropy changes of real gases during

process 1-2.

24

Entropy

departure

factor

Entropy departure

pressure) and TR (reduced temperature) in the generalized entropy

departure chart.

Zs is used to determine the deviation of the entropy of a gas at a given P

and T from the entropy of an ideal gas at the same P and T.

during a

process 1-2

25

EXAMPLE 12-11

Thermodynamics Analysis with Non-Ideal Gas Properties

Propane is compressed isothermally by a piston-cylinder

device from 95˚C and 1400 kPa to 5500 kPa. Using the

generalized charts, determine the work done and the heat

transfer per unit mass of propane.

ANS:

Wb,in = 105.1 kJ/kg

qout = 326.4 kJ/kg

26

THANK YOU..

27

- Perfect IAUploaded byMelissa Anne Hawley
- 69243318 Solved Problems in ThermodynamicsUploaded byfarshidian
- The Terrible Beauty of ThermodynamicsUploaded byels243
- Heat Rate and Efficiency 15 Desember 2014 (NDC Test)Uploaded byNur Ali Said
- Gas PipelineUploaded byJavi V Miranda
- EOCQ_ans_22Uploaded byharshanauoc
- etgUploaded byyallanki
- Refsys Terms - LeeUploaded byMarvin E. Villanueva
- merination notesUploaded byNarmadha Ramesh
- Exam2 Key 1999Uploaded byJackHammerthorn
- NR 220802 Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics IUploaded bySrinivasa Rao G
- Unit 5Uploaded byYogaisan Ramasawmy
- Ch06 SlidesUploaded bybeelzeburton
- chap4-4Uploaded byLee Marvin Combalicer
- 6DSUPP Desuperheater Supplement BrochureUploaded byПавел Лукьянов
- AssignmentUploaded byTheod S. Vila
- rrrrrUploaded byusaid saifullah
- Manual de Modelos TermodinamicosUploaded byElianaRodriguezALejo
- Unit 3, Lesson 06, Introduction to State Functions and Hess's LawUploaded byInform7105
- Alp Solutions Thermodynamics Eng Ja JbUploaded byShubhamDubeysubhash
- 1st Law of ThermodynamicsUploaded byJon
- TesUploaded byChandra Lutfi
- Chapter3notes ME311 PJF F14Uploaded bytarzantrap
- Introduction to ThermodynamicsUploaded byPooveanthan Hb
- IDEALEQNUploaded byNick Habibi
- CALCULATIONS ON THE FLOW OF HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES THROUGH POROUS MEDIAUploaded byFrancisco Valdes
- 4400Uploaded byhufuents-1
- ASTM F 1785 – 97 R03Uploaded byFrancisco Guerra
- V13_N3_1992_ReschUploaded byalex de souza
- 23_Real_GasUploaded byEuwan Tyrone Prias

- Chapter 4 Psychomentry, Humidification and DehumidificationUploaded byNurshaqina Sufian
- PTT259 Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)Uploaded byNurshaqina Sufian
- Oil & Fat AnalysisUploaded byNurshaqina Sufian
- Chapter 11-Refrigeration CyclesUploaded byAbas S. Acmad
- Chapter 1 - Concept of Thermodynamics.pdfUploaded byNurshaqina Sufian
- Chapter 3 - Mass & Energy AnalysisUploaded byNurshaqina Sufian
- Chapter 6 - Second Law of ThermodynamicsUploaded byNurshaqina Sufian
- Chapter 2 - Properties Pure SubtancesUploaded byNurshaqina Sufian
- Chapter 1 - Concept of ThermodynamicsUploaded byNurshaqina Sufian
- Oil and Fat AnalysisUploaded byNurshaqina Sufian
- Oil and fat analysis2.pdfUploaded byNurshaqina Sufian

- Session 11Uploaded byKais Garchi Casal
- 1-s2.0-S0306261916310662-mainUploaded byMuhammad Aizuddin Zainal Abidin
- Bio-X Quality Assurance GuideUploaded byMykola
- Tema 2 GasiferoUploaded byMoises David
- Wind Tunnel Design and Operation-thesisUploaded byJorge Luis Gordillo Domínguez
- ISA AD Plowery Final Draft 3-24-09Uploaded byPatrick Lowery
- - Digital Flow Meter for Gas (68)Uploaded byMASSFLOWMEASUREMENTS
- OSE800E(2012)_0508Uploaded bySean Porter
- Fundamental Study of Water-Gas Shift Reaction in Ironmaking ProcessUploaded bySEP-Publisher
- Nitrogen FoamsUploaded byquespues
- 1-s2.0-S138358661400642X-mainUploaded byMuzzamil Shahzad
- Preformulation Testing of Solid Dosage FormsUploaded byprinceamit
- MetalsUploaded byMaddy_T
- Ampulmatic®-10 Ampule Sealer With Purge Gas Injector and Liquid Filler AccessoriesUploaded byBioscience_inc
- TriacetinUploaded bySurya Alchemizt
- Water ManagementUploaded byanon-699953
- SampleTask PHY E 20111019Uploaded byulrich788
- KatalcoUploaded bymharry21
- ppt- the mole and avogadros numberUploaded byapi-238421605
- Ch 08 Visc Flow Along a WallUploaded byali68fat64
- fumhbUploaded byMuhammad Abdul
- Kedah Chemistry Trial 2010 (NO BAHASA MELAYU)Uploaded byplouffle
- CHAPTER 4-Energy analysis of closed system.pptxUploaded byChelsie Patricia Demonteverde Miranda
- Arun Kishore Eswara - P&ID Primer a Class Lecture (2013)Uploaded byDimas Nugraha
- Comparison of different water models for melting point calculations of methane hydrates using MD simulations.pdfUploaded byMangesh Bhendale
- 2014 Tests and Keys.pdfUploaded byshaturocks123
- 0625_s12_qp_21Uploaded byidyllic20
- Basic Concept in ChemistryUploaded byPrithviraj Netke
- 1838 Griffin Chemical RecreationsUploaded byMarcelo Baptista
- Mercury in PetroleumUploaded byhortalemos

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.