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Procedures

Sampling Terminology

• Sample

• Population or universe

• Population element

• Census

Sample • Subset of a larger population .

Population • Any complete group – People – Sales territories – Stores .

Census • Investigation of all individual elements that make up a population .

Stages in the Define the target population Selection of a Sample Select a sampling frame Determine if a probability or nonprobability sampling method will be chosen Plan procedure for selecting sampling units Determine sample size Select actual sampling units Conduct fieldwork .

Target Population • Relevant population • Operationally define • Comic book reader? .

Sampling Frame • A list of elements from which the sample may be drawn • Working population • Sampling frame error: the error that happens when we use the wrong sampling frame .

Sampling Units • Group selected for the sample • Primary Sampling Units (PSU) • Secondary Sampling Units • Tertiary Sampling Units .

Errors Associated with Sampling • Sampling frame error • Random sampling error • Nonresponse error .

nonzero probability for every element • Nonprobability sampling • Probability of selecting any particular member is unknown . Two Major Categories of Sampling • Probability sampling • Known.

Nonprobability Sampling • Convenience • Judgment • Quota • Snowball .

Probability Sampling • Simple random sample • Systematic sample • Stratified sample • Cluster sample • Multistage area sample .

Convenience Sampling • Also called haphazard or accidental sampling • The sampling procedure of obtaining the people or units that are most conveniently available .

Judgment Sampling • Also called purposive sampling • An experienced individual selects the sample based on his or her judgment about some appropriate characteristics required of the sample member .

. Quota Sampling • Ensures that the various subgroups in a population are represented on pertinent sample characteristics • To the exact extent that the investigators desire • It should not be confused with stratified sampling.

Snowball Sampling • A variety of procedures • Initial respondents are selected by probability methods • Additional respondents are obtained from information provided by the initial respondents .

Simple Random Sampling • A sampling procedure that ensures that each element in the population will have an equal chance of being included in the sample .

Systematic Sampling • A simple process • Every nth name from the list will be drawn .

Stratified Sampling • Probability sample • Subsamples are drawn within different strata • Each stratum is more or less equal on some characteristic • Do not confuse with quota sample .

Cluster Sampling • The purpose of cluster sampling is to sample economically while retaining the characteristics of a probability sample. • The primary sampling unit is no longer the individual element in the population • The primary sampling unit is a larger cluster of elements located in proximity to one another .

adult population Regions Zones woredas Kebeles Housholds . Examples of Clusters Population Element Possible Clusters in the United States Ethiopian.

What is the Appropriate Sample Design? • Degree of accuracy • Resources • Time • Advanced knowledge of the population • Need for statistical analysis .

S = Sample standard deviation p = Estimated proportion of success 2 q = (1-p) or estimated the proportion of Z pq n failures E = The maximum allowance for error 2 E between population mean and sample mean or between population proportion and sample proportion . Sample size 2 Where: n zs n = Sample size Z = The confidence interval in standard error E units.

9629.00. zs 1.00 . Sample Size Formula . the range of error (E) is acceptable at $4. sample size is reduced.21 202 2 4.Example • Suppose.84 14.00 2 56.00 2 2 n E 4. in the same example as the one before.

922 . Calculating sample size for proportion • Proportion p . 001225 753 . 4 ) n q . 6 )(.4 ( .6 ( 1. 8416 )(. 24 ) 001225 . 96 ) 2 (. 035 ) 2 (3.

For known population 𝑵 • n= 𝟏+𝑵 𝒆 𝟐 Where. n= sample size • N= size of the population • e= level of precision .

Sample Size for unknown Proportion 2 Z pq n 2 E .

. p = Estimated proportion of success q = (1-p) or estimated the proportion of failures E2 = The square of the maximum allowance for error between the true proportion and sample proportion or zsp squared. z2pq n 2 E Where: n = Number of items in samples Z2 = The square of the confidence interval in standard error units.

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