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4G

Network Services

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What is 4G?
With great power comes great responsibility.

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4G
Fourth generation Mobile Communications

Wireless World Research Forum defines 4G as:

-A network that operates on Internet technology,
combines it with other applications and technologies
such as Wi-Fi, and runs at speeds ranging from 100
Mbps (in cell-phone networks) to 1 Gbps (in local
Wi-Fi networks).
4G
Fourth generation Mobile Communications

• Other descriptions-
 Beyond 3rd Generation.
 Fourth-generation cellular communication system.
 Fourth-generation mobile technology.
 Fully IP-based wireless internet.
 100 Mbps (outdoor) and 1Gbps (indoor).
 End-to-end QoS (Quality of service).
 High security.
 Any services, anytime, anywhere.
 4G will make us as a part of the Internet.
 Always Be Connected (ABC).

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• 4G is used broadly to include several types
of broadband wireless access communication
systems along with cellular telephone systems.

• The goal of 4G systems is to incorporate and
integrate different wireless access technologies
and mobile network architectures so as to
achieve a seamless wireless access infrastructure.

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Previous Generations
(1G,2G,2.5G and 3G)

Everything you can imagine is real.
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1G
When one door closes, another opens.
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• 1G (First Generation) is the name given to the
first generation of mobile telephone networks.

• Circuit-switched technology.
• FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access).
• Analog system.
• Basic mobility.
• Poor voice quality.
• Poor security.

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2G

You can have it all. Just not all at once.
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• Digital –consists of 1s and 0s
•Digital signal:
1) Low level,
2) High level,
3) Rising edge,
4) Falling edge 2

1 1
3
0 0 0

1
4

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2G
• Digital data can be compressed and multiplexed much
more effectively than analog voice encodings.
•Multiplexing -multiple analog message signals or digital
data streams are combined into one signal.

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• Allows for lower powered radio signals that require less
battery power.
• Digital voice data can be compressed and multiplexed
much more effectively than analog.
• CODEC introduction -program that encodes and decodes
digital data stream or signal.
•Translates data from digital to analog and vice .

Speaker

Voice CODEC
0101110

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2G
•Advantages:
• The digital voice encoding allows digital error
checking
•increase sound quality
•lowers the noise level
Going all-digital allowed for the introduction of
digital data transfer.
•SMS –“short message service”
•E-mail

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2G
Disadvantages

• Cell towers had a limited coverage area.

• Built mainly for voice services and slow data.

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2.5G
2G Enhanced

The best way to predict the future is to invent it.
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• Lies somewhere between 2G and 3G.

• The development of 2.5G has been viewed as a
stepping-stone towards 3G.

• Was prompted by the demand for better data
services and access to the internet.

• Provides faster services than 2G, but not as
faster as advanced as the newer 3G systems.
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• Extends the capabilities of 2G systems by
providing additional features, such as a packet-
switched connection(GPRS) in the TDMA-based
GSM system, and enhanced data rates (HSCSD
and EDGE).

GPRS: General Packet Radio Services.
EDGE: Enhanced Data for Global Evolution.
HSCSD: High Speed circuit-switched data.

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3G
Dreams are necessary to life.
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3G
• Large capacity and broadband capabilities.
•Allows the transmission of 384kbps for mobile
systems and up to 2Mbps.

•Increased spectrum efficiency –5Mhz–
-A greater number of users that can be simultaneously
supported by a radio frequency bandwidth.

• High data rates at lower incremental cost than 2G.
• Global roaming
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3G
• CDMA –Code Division Multiple Access.
• Does not divide up the channel by time or frequency.
• Encodes data with a special code associated with each
channel.

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Data Rates Comparison (Kbps)

10000

1000
2G

100 2.5G

3G
10

1
Lower speed Higher speed

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Evolution To 4G

Ever wonder where your life is going.
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Evolution to 4G
CDMA GSM/UMTS IEEE Cellular IEEE LAN

2G CDMA IS-95A GSM TDMA IEEE 802.16 IEEE 802.11
IS-136

2.5G CDMA IS-95B GPRS IEEE 802.11a

3G CDMA 2000 E-GPRS
EDGE
WCDMA
FDD/TDD
TD SCDMA
LCR-TDD
IEEE 802.11g

Fixed Wi BRO
3.5G 1x Ev-DO
Rev O/A/B
HSDPA
FDD/TDD
HSUPA
WiMAX IEEE 802.11g
FDD/TDD
802.16d

LTE HSPA+ Mobile WiMAX
3.9G UMB 802.20
E-UTRA 802.16e
IEEE 802.11n
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Technology moving towards 4G
Mobility

4G
1995 2000 2005 2010+

High speed
3G LTE

3G
(IMT2000)
Mobile
Medium
CDMA/GSM/TDMA WiMAX
speed (WiBRO)
2G
(Digital)
CDMA/GSM/TDMA
High Speed
1G WPAN
WLAN
(Analog)
5 GHz
Low speed WLAN
2.4 GHz
WLAN
Bluetooth Data Rates

~14.4 kbps 144 kbps 384 kbps <50 Mbps <100 Mbps 24
Mobility

High speed

Medium
speed
3thGeneration 4th Generation
(IMT-2000)
2G (2007-2010)
2.5G

(2001)
Walking/ 2G
Local area

Standing/
Indoor Data Rates
0.1 1 10 100 25
4G
Communication System

A dream is a wish your heart makes.
• Seamless Roaming
• "Seamless" and "wireless," when put together,
represent a technology of wireless Internet that
hands you off to another network without
interruption so you may continue your activities
online without even noticing that you connected
into another network. Another name for it is
"seamless roaming."

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Seamless Connection of Networks in 4G
Cellular 2.5G
(GSM etc.
Cellular 3G
(UMTS etc.

Digital
Audio/Video
Broadcast Connection Layer

Core IP Network

Cellular 4G
Short Range
PAN/LAN/
MAN/WAN
WLAN/
HIPER-LAN
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Features of 4G:
•Faster and more reliable.
100 Mb/s (802.11g wireless = 54Mb/s, 3G = 2Mb/s)
•Lower cost than previous generations
•Multi-standard wireless system.
–Bluetooth, Wired, Wireless (802.11x)
•Ad Hoc Networking.
•IPv6 Core.
•OFDM used instead of CDMA.
•Potentially IEEE standard 802.11n
–Most information is proprietary.
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vs.

Technology 3G 4G
Frequency
1.8 - 2.5GHz 2 - 8GHz
Band
Bandwidth 5-20MHz 5-20MHz
Data Rates Up to 2Mbps 100Mbps moving - 1Gbps stationary
Access W-CDMA VSF-OFCDM and VSF-CDMA
FEC Turbo-codes Concatenated codes
Switching Circuit/Packet Packet

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4G
Technology

Flexibility comes with responsibility.
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• Smart Antenna

• Beam radio signals directly at a users to follow the users
as they move.

•Allow the same radio frequency to be used for other
users without worry of interference.

•Seamless handoff between towers/access points.

•One transmit antenna, two receive antennas.
–Allows connection to two access points at once.
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Smart Antenna
Space Division
Past Multiple Access
(SDMA)

Now

Past
Now

Same time and
frequency

Beam Tracking

Smart Antenna Technology 34
Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation (OFDM)

Basic idea:
Using a large number of parallel narrow-band
subcarriers instead of a single wide-band carrier to
transport information.

• Advantages:
-Very easy and efficient in dealing with multi-path.
-Robust again narrow-band interference
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G4
• Earth's population stands at around 6.6 billion.
• The Internet has a population of just 1.3 billion.

22%

• IPv6 uses 128 bits for IPv6 addresses which allows
for 340 billion billion billion billion (3.4x1038)
unique addresses.
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IPv6 vs. IPv4
Feature IPv4 IPv6
Deployed 1978 1999
Address format 129.5.255.2/16 2001:0ba0:01e0:d001:0000:000
0:d0f0:0010
Address Space Over 109; possible addresses Over 1038; possible addresses
Packet Size Variable size- time consuming to Fixed size (40 Octets)
handle More efficient
Special fields in Many types, often not supported by Eliminated for efficiency or
header venders . replaced by other features.
Security -limited: no authentication or -Authentication(validation of
encryption at IP level. packet origin).
-Dependence on higher level -Encryption(privacy of contents)
protocols; vulnerable to DoS and -requires administration of
address deception or spoofing attacks. “security associations” to
handle key distributions.
Quality of Service -Defined but not generally used -Flow labeling
-Priority
-Support for real-time data and
multimedia distribution. 37
Data Rate Comparison (Kbps)

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• Conclusion:
4G system provides an end to end IP solution
where voice and data streamed multimedia can
be served to users on an ” Anytime, Anywhere ”
basis at higher data rates than previous
generation.
Wider bandwidth.
End-to-end QoS.
Higher security.
Offering any kind of services anytime, anywhere.
Affordable cost and one billing.
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