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Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices

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Digital Electronics Introduction Introduction Number System Code Conversions Weighted & Unweighted Codes Error Detection & Correction in Codes Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices

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Digital Electronics Introduction Introduction Number System Code Conversions Weighted & Unweighted Codes Error Detection & Correction in Codes Binary Number System Octal Number System Hexa Decimal Number System Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices

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Digital Electronics Introduction Introduction Number System Code Conversions Weighted & Unweighted Codes Error Detection & Correction in Codes Octal To Binary Binary To Octal Hex To Binary Binary To Hex Hex To Octal Octal To Hex Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices

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Digital Electronics Introduction Introduction Number System Code Conversions Weighted & Unweighted Codes Error Detection & Correction in Codes BCD Code Excess ± 3 Code Gray Code Character Codes Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Introduction Number System Code Conversions Weighted & Unweighted Codes Error Detection & Correction in Codes Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Introduction Types De-Morgan¶s Theorems Interconversion Of Gates Boolean Algebra Karnaugh¶s Map Logic Gate Applications Introduction to Logic Families Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

OR Gate EX .Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Introduction Types De-Morgan¶s Theorems Interconversion Of Gates Boolean Algebra Karnaugh¶s Map Logic Gate Applications Introduction to Logic Families OR Gate AND Gate NOT Gate NOR Gate NAND Gate EX .NOR Gate Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Introduction Types De-Morgan¶s Theorems Interconversion Of Gates Boolean Algebra Karnaugh¶s Map Logic Gate Applications Introduction to Logic Families De-Morgan¶s 1st Theorem De-Morgan¶s 2nd Theorem Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Introduction Types De-Morgan¶s Theorems Interconversion Of Gates Boolean Algebra Karnaugh¶s Map Logic Gate Applications Introduction to Logic Families Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Introduction Types De-Morgan¶s Theorems Interconversion Of Gates Boolean Algebra Karnaugh¶s Map Logic Gate Applications Introduction to Logic Families Boolean Identities Some Proofs Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Introduction Types De-Morgan¶s Theorems Interconversion Of Gates Boolean Algebra Karnaugh¶s Map Logic Gate Applications Introduction to Logic Families Introduction K-Map expression Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Introduction Types De-Morgan¶s Theorems Interconversion Of Gates Boolean Algebra Karnaugh¶s Map Logic Gate Applications Introduction to Logic Families Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Introduction Types De-Morgan¶s Theorems Interconversion Of Gates Boolean Algebra Karnaugh¶s Map Logic Gate Applications Introduction to Logic Families A look into logic family Features of logic family Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Introduction Examples Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuits Circuit Introduction Examples Data Converters Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Introduction Examples Memory Devices X .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Introduction Memory Classification .

by performing complex calculations in a very short span and also initiates immediate follow up action to be taken. the analog signals are of no use to the computer. in terms of ones and zeros. Some of the number systems: Binary Octal Hexadecimal BCD . Thus the entire data that has to be fed to the computer must be digital I. Computers help in speeding up the process.e. Moreover computers control the process. However.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Digital Electronics ² Introduction All of us are familiar and aware that now a days most the processes are automated. There are various number systems available to represent any data. It works on digital signals.

g. add all of them to get a decimal equivalent. «23.11)2: 25 X 1 + 24 X 0 + 23 X 1 + 22 X 1 + 21 X 1 + 20 X 0 + 2-1 X 1 + 2-2 X 1 = 32 + 0 + 8 + 4 + 20 + 0. Write the remainders in the order from MSB to LSB to get the binary equivalent.: (101 110. If the decimal # is both int & fraction then above steps are combined. The 1st remainder is LSB. multiply each bit with the weight associated.g. Only fractional part is multiplied.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Binary Number System Binary number system has base two. its continuously multiplied by 2. The process is stopped when the fractional part becomes 0 or the required accuracy is reached. 2-2. 22. e.011)2 . Weights assigned to a binary number are as follows.375)10 = (111111. 2-3« The number of bits µn¶ required to successfully represent µm¶ decimal numbers in binary system is given by: m = 2n Binary to decimal conversion: We can represent any decimal # as sum of product of weight associated with each bit & value of the bit itself. Consider weight associated with each bit position.110110)2 (63.75)10 Decimal to binary conversion: The given # is successively divided by 2 considering the reminders. The 1st carry generated is the MSB.g.85)10 = (0.: (125)10 = (1111101)2 (0. If the decimal # is a fraction.: (1001)2: 23 X 1 + 22 X 0 + 21 X 0 + 20 X 1 = 8 + 0 + 0 + 1 = (9)10 e.5 + 0. considering carry generated. 2-1. Any number is represented only in terms of 1 and 0.25 = (46. e. 21. The last remainder is MSB. Continue division until the quotient becomes 0. 20.

63757) 8 (52. 11 as 9 and so on. The 1st carry generated is the MSB. 82.g. Octal to decimal conversion: First get the weight associated with each symbol of octal number. e.1)8 . (596)10 = (1124) 8 (0. If the decimal # is both int & fraction then above steps are combined. If the decimal # is a fraction.125)10 = (64. The process is stopped when the fractional part becomes 0 or the required accuracy is reached. 0 to 7 represents first 8 decimal number then a 2nd digit as 1 is considered so we have 10 representing 8. Any number is represented only in terms of number 0 to 7.: (0. Only fractional part is multiplied. 8-2. Weights assigned to an octal number are: «83. Multiply each symbol with its associated weight and finally take the sum. The division is terminated when the quotient is 0.: (62.: (502)8: 82 X 5 + 81 X 0 + 80 X 2 = 5 X 64 + 0 X 8 + 2 X 1 = (322)10 e. 80.4199)10 e.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Octal Number System Octal number system has a base of 8. considering carry generated. its continuously multiplied by 8.g. The 1st remainder is LSB.g. The last remainder is MSB. considering the reminders in each division. 81. 8-3« In an octal number system.3125)10 Decimal to octal conversion: The given # is successively divided by 8.812)10 = (0.327)8: 8-1 X 3 + 8-2 X 2 + 8-3 X 7 = (0.24)8 = 6 X 81 + 2 X 80 + 2 X 8-1 + 4 X 8-2 = (50. 8-1.

Only fractional part is multiplied.754)10 Decimal to hex conversion: The given # is successively divided by 16. The division is terminated when the quotient is 0.C1)16 = 10 X 161 + 11 X 160 + 12 X 16-1 + 1 X 16-2 = (171. Any number is represented with symbols 0. 16-1. 160.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Hexa Decimal Number System The hexadecimal system has a base of 16.5999)16 (47.3D)16: 16-1 X 3 + 16-2 X 13 = (0.: (0. The weights assigned to hexadecimal number is « 163. 161. its continuously multiplied by 16. If the decimal # is both int & fraction then above steps are combined. The 1st remainder is LSB.350)10 = (0. 1. D. Also hexadecimal numbers can easily be converted into binary and octal number. The process is stopped when the fractional part becomes 0 or the required accuracy is reached. 6. 3. 2. 9. If the decimal # is a fraction. A. considering carry generated. (1712)10 = (6B0)16 (0. The 1st carry generated is the MSB.: (AB. The last remainder is MSB. considering the reminders in each division.5)10 = (2F)16 . 5.238)10 e. 7. 16-3 « Hex to decimal conversion: First get the weight associated with each symbol. Multiply each symbol with its associated weight and finally take the sum.g. 16-2. C. 4. 8. B. e. 162.g.: (1A2)16: 162 X 1 + 161 X 10 + 160 X 2 = 256 + 160 + 2 = (418)10 e. E and F. This number system is widely used in data representation for microprocessors as it becomes simpler as compared to binary.g.

76)8 = (010 100. The resultant number is the binary equivalent of the octal number.54)8 (11011.10110)2 = 0. (563)8 = (101 110 011)2 (0.54)8 . for fractional part move towards right.101 100 = (33.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Other Code Conversions Octal to Binary ² Binary to Octal conversion Octal to binary conversion: Consider the octal number.111 110)2 Binary to octal conversion: Form a group of 3 bits starting from the octal decimal point.101 100 = (0. Add suitable zeros to get groups of exact 3 bits whenever necessary. (1101110)2 = 001 101 110 = (156)8 (0. Write the binary equivalent for each octal symbol.1011)2 = 011 011. Then write the octal equivalent of each 3-bit group. For integer part move towards left.213)8 = (0.010 001 011)2 (24.

A)16 (110010101)2 = 0001 1001 0101. Then write the octal equivalent of each 4-bit group. for fractional part move towards right.1011 1000 = (195. Write the binary equivalent for each hex symbol. Add suitable zeros to get groups of exact 4 bits whenever necessary. The resultant number is the binary equivalent of the hex number. (101101)2 = 0010 1101 = (2D)16 (0.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Other Code Conversions Hex to Binary ² Binary to Hex conversion Hex to binary conversion: Consider the hex number.A)16 = (1100 0001)2 Binary to hex conversion: Form a group of 4 bits starting from the hexadecimal point. (A5)16 = (1010 0101)2 (0.1011 1101)2 (C1. For integer part move towards left.101)2 = 0.BD)16 = (0.B8)16 .1010 = (0.

So first the Hex or Octal number is converted in binary. From binary it can be reconverted back to Octal or Hex as required.g.g.: (48)16 To be converted in Binary equivalent first: (01001000)2 Octal equivalent of Binary: = 001 001 000 = (110)8 Octal to Hex conversion: e. Hex to octal conversion: e.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Other Code Conversions Hex to Octal ² Octal to Hex conversion This conversion is not possible directly.: (523)8 To be converted in Binary equivalent first: (101010011)2 Octal equivalent of Binary: = 0001 0101 0011 = (153)16 .

4221. µn¶ digit decimal #.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Weighted and Unwighted Codes BCD Code Code is a way to represent data. 3 = 0011. 0 = 0000. 1. Code can be classified as weighted codes and unweighted codes. 3321. no fixed weight is assigned to each symbol position of the code. EBCDIC. 10. natural BCD. each bit position has a weight in increasing power of 10 i. These codes may further be self complementing or otherwise. 8. In weighted code. 6 = 0110. 4. 1. 4 = 0100. a weight is assigned to each symbol position of the code. 256 so on. 5421. 1 = 0001. 2. 7 = 0111. BCD Code: Binary Coded Decimal Code Code in which the decimal numbers 0 to 9 are represented by a string of binary digits. Excess ± 3 and gray codes. They may or may not be used. 100 so on. Apart from them. In unweighted code. 9 = 1001 . each bit position has a weight in increasing powers of 2 i. BCD code will be 4-bit BCD of individual digits taken together. In hex. in arithmetic operations. 16. 8 so on.e. Examples of unweighted codes: ASCII. 64 so on. In octal. 2 = 0010. also called 8421 code. 5 = 0101. 1. Weight associated with MSB 23 & LSB 20. 8 = 1110. In case of binary numbers. In case of decimal numbers.e. Thus there is no systematic way of representing the number. weights are 1. 84¯21 are few weighted codes.

. 11 = 0100 0110 1011 Excess ± 3 code is a self-complementing code i. one¶s complement of any Excess ± 3 code X. 6. 9¶s complement of 6 is 9 ± 6 = 3. 3 + 8 = 4. Excess ± 3 code of 3 is 0110.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Weighted and Unwighted Codes EXCESS ² 3 code Excess ± 3 Code: Unweighted code: This code is obtained by adding 3 to each digit and converting that digit to a binary code: For 7: 3 + 7 = 10 = 1010 For 18: 3 + 1. 3 + 3. 11 = 0100 1011 For 138: 3 + 1.: Decimal Number = 6 Its Excess ± 3 code = 1001.e. 3 + 8 = 4.g. corresponding to the Excess ± 3 code X. e. One¶s complement of 1001 is 0110. is the Excess ± 3 code for the 9¶s complement of the decimal #.

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Weighted and Unwighted Codes Gray code Gray Code: Unweighted code: This is a code in terms of 1 and 0and every new code differs from the previous code only in one bit position. Gray code is not used for performing arithmetic operations. Instead it is used in encoding the position of shafts or wheels. It avoids problems which arise when several digits are supposed to change at a time. Binary Code 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 Gray Code 0000 0001 0011 0010 0110 0111 0101 0100 Binary Code 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 Gray Code 1100 1101 1111 1110 1010 1011 1001 1000 . It is also used extensively while simplifying Boolean expressions using Karnaugh¶s map.

The two popularly used character codes are: ASCII code (American Standard Code For Information Interchange) EBCDIC code (Executed Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) ASCII: This is a 7-bit code without parity. It also includes special characters like $. It allows coding of both upper & lower case alphabets. It allows manufacturers to standardize computer hardware. * and so on. A 1000001 65 B 1000010 66 C 1000011 67 Z 1011010 90 a 1100001 97 b 1100010 98 z 1111010 112 0 0110000 48 1 0110000 49 9 0111001 57 . capable of coding 128 alphanumeric characters including special characters.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Weighted and Unwighted Codes Character Code Character Codes: These are also called alphanumeric codes. These codes contain both letters & digits. These codes are used in computers.

e data changes at only one bit position. . It can be added either as MSB or LSB. One of the popular means to do it is by introducing additional bit/bits to maintain correct parity for the data being transmitted. Hamming Code: It uses multiple parity bits for handling successful data transfer. Error Detection using Single Parity Bit: It¶s the additional bit added to the existing data which is decided depending upon whether parity is to be odd or even. Thus 100010 could change to 10011 or 100000 during transmission. there is always a possibility of data getting lost or partially damaged due to change in the bit status. This code is basically an error detecting as well as correcting code. So there must be some means to detect error in data & identify it. The only limitation is: there must be only one bit error I.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Error Detection And Correction in Codes During data transmission between computer & various I/o devices. This is an erroneous data.

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Logic Gates ² Introduction Logic gates are electronic circuits that implement a basic logic operation. Each logic family is characterized by its switching speed. The voltage level magnitudes are decided by their respective logic families. AND. NOT. power dissapation. Negative logic: High voltage represents a logic 0 and a low voltage represents a 1. it does not give any indications regarding the electronic circuit constructing the gate. propagation delay. Logic gates accept inputs & give outputs only in two states 0 and 1. Operations possible are: OR. EX-OR. Two types of logics are possible: Positive logic: High voltage represents a logic 1 and a low voltage represents a 0. fan in and fan out. NOR and NAND Each gate has a symbol associated with it. This logic is usually followed. However. . voltage levels for operations.

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X OR Gate Function: . Current flows through the LED and it glows. This means output is Zero. LED both diodes D1 D2 are reverse biased. Quad ± 4 gates. When either A or B or both are high corresponding to Vcc. Hence do not conduct. either D1 & D2 or both are forward biased & conduct. each having two inputs. . Example of OR gate: IC 7432 Quad ± 2 input OR gate.It is an electronic gate whose output is 1 if any one or both its inputs are 1 Boolean expression: . So no current flows through the LED. This is the only IC available.Y = A + B µ+¶ indicates logic OR Truth Table: Symbol of 2 ± i/p OR gate: Using Diodes: A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 O/P 0 1 1 1 A A D1 R Y B B D2 O/P Working of two input OR gate using diodes: When A and B both are 0 corresponding to ground. This means the output is high.

LED Hence they conduct. B or both are 0. D2 or both are forward biased. IC 7421 Dual ± 4 input AND gate. So no current flows through diodes. B µ. the diodes are reverse biased. So output is Zero.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X AND Gate Function: . All the current from the source Vcc flows through the LED & it glows. D1.¶ indicates logic AND Truth Table: Symbol of 2 ± i/p AND gate: Using Diodes: A B O/P A A D1 0 0 0 0 1 0 R 1 0 0 Y 1 1 1 B B D2 O/P Working of two input AND gate using diodes: When A.Y = A . . So all the current from source Vcc flows through the diodes & nothing through LED. IC 7411 Triple ± 3 input AND gate.It is an electronic gate whose output is 1 only when both its inputs are 1 Boolean expression: . When both A & B are 1. The output is 1. Example of AND gate: IC 7408 Quad ± 2 input AND gate.

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X NOT Gate (Inverter Gate) Function: . Boolean expression: Y = A¯ Truth Table: A 0 1 O/P 1 0 Symbol of NOT gate: A Y or A Y Example of NOT gate: IC 7404 Hex inverters. There are 6 inverter gates.A NOT gate has only one input & the output of the NOT gate is complement of its input. .

When both inputs are 0 that output is high. Boolean expression: Y = A + B ¯¯¯ Truth Table: A B 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Symbol of NOR gate: A Y O/P 1 0 0 0 B A Y B Example of NOR gate: IC 7402 ± Quad 2 Input NOR gate IC 7427 ± Triple3 Input NOR gate IC 74260 ± Dual 5 Input NOR gate .It is an electronic circuit whose output is 0 when anyone or both its inputs is 1.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X NOR Gate Function: .

B ¯¯¯ Truth Table: A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 O/P 1 1 1 0 Symbol of 2 ± i/p NAND gate: A A Y B or B Y Example of NAND gate: IC 7400 Quad ± 2 input NAND gate. IC 7420 Dual ± 4 input NAND gate.It is an electronic gate whose output is 1 when any one of its inputs or both are 0 Boolean expression: Y = A . .Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X NAND Gate Function: . IC 7410 Triple ± 3 input NAND gate.

B¯ + A¯ . . which gives a high output only if odd number of ones is present at the input.OR gates are generally used to check parity of data. the number of ones are odd. When this 4 bit data is entered as input to an Ex.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X EX ² OR Gate Function: . B Truth Table: A B 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Symbol of Ex ± OR gate: - O/P 0 1 1 0 A Y B Example of Ex ± OR gate: IC 7486 ± Quad 2 Input Ex ± OR gate Ex.It is an electronic circuit. If it has odd parity. For even number of ones. the output of the gate is 1. the output of Ex ± OR gate is 0. It is also used in construction of half adders and full adders. Boolean expression: Y=A B = A . Suppose there is 4-bit number.OR gate.

which gives a high output only when both its inputs are same or there are even number of ones. (A + B ¯) Truth Table: A B 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 O/P 1 0 0 1 A Y B Example of Ex ± NOR gate: Two input Ex ± NOR gates can be used for checking 2 data bits. B) ¯¯¯ = (A ¯ + B) .Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X EX ² NOR Gate Function: . output is 1. B¯ + A¯ . if they are different. If both the bits are same. the output is 0.It is an electronic circuit. the output is 0. Boolean expression: Y=A Symbol of Ex ± NOR gate: - B ¯¯¯ = (A . If the number of ones is odd. .

It also helps us in simplifying complicated Boolean expressions and minimizes the number of gates in the simplified expression.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X De ² Morgan·s Theorems There are two De-Morgan¶s theorems. A + B ¯¯¯ = A ¯ . It means a NOR gate is same as a bubbled AND gate. i. B ¯ Logically: A Y B A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 A+B 0 1 1 1 A¯ 1 1 0 0 B¯ 1 0 1 0 A+B¯¯¯ 1 0 0 = 0 = B A¯ . These theorems are used for interchanging one gate by another proper gate.e. De Morgan¶s 1st Theorem: It states the complement of the sum of 2 bits A and B is equal to the product of the complements of A and B. B¯ 1 0 0 0 A Y .

e. B ¯¯¯ = A¯ + B¯ Logically: A Y B = B A Y A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 A.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X De ² Morgan·s Theorems De Morgan¶s 2nd Theorem: It states that the complement of the product of 2 numbers A and B is the sum of the complement of A and B It means a NAND gate is equivalent to a bubbled OR gate.B 0 0 0 1 A¯ 1 1 0 0 B¯ 1 0 1 0 A. A .B¯¯¯ 1 1 1 0 = A¯ + B¯ 1 1 1 0 . i.

AND gate 2.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Interconversion Of Gates NAND and NOR gates are also called Universal gates We can build all basic gates just by using only NAND or NOR gates. Building all basic gates using NAND gates 1. OR gate . NOT gate 2. We make use of DeMorgan¶s theorems for this purpose. AND gate 3. OR gate 3. NOT gate Building all basic gates using NOR gates 1.

(A + B) = A A . 16. 17. The binary arithmetic follows certain rules proposed by George Boole in 1854. C . 18. AB = BA 13. 11. C = (A + B) (A + C) A (BC) = (AB) . A+A=A A+ 1=1 A¯ + 1 = 1 0+A=A A + A¯ = 1 (A¯)¯ = A 7. 8. 2. 20. The algebra associated with Binary number is also called as Boolean Algebra. 0= 0 A . 12. (A¯ + B) = AB A . B. It is also possible to translate mathematical operations into equivalent logic circuits which are based on Boolean Algebra.A=A A. 10. A + A¯ B = A + B A+ B= B+A A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C A (B + C) = AB + AC A. Binary data exists only in two forms 1 or 0. 3. A¯ . full or empty.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Boolean Algebra Like Mathematical operations being performed on decimal numbers. ON or OFF. 1 19. high or low. it is also possible to perform operations on binary data. 6. 14. 1 = A¯ A. 15. 5. A¯ = 0 A . 4. 9. Boolean Identities 1.

A + AB = B LHS: = = = 2. (A + B) = A LHS: = = = = A (1 + B) A (1) A = (Since 1+B = 1) (Since A.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Boolean Algebra Some Proofs 1.A+A. A¯ = 0) RHS . A + A¯B = A + B LHS: = = = = 3. A.B A (1 + B) A = (Since A.1 = A) RHS A (1 + B) + A¯B A + AB + A¯B A + B (A + A¯) A+ B = (Since 1+B = 1) (Since A+A¯ = 1) RHS A. A . (B + C) = AB + AC) (Since 1+B = 1) RHS 4. A¯ + A .B A + A. B = 0 + A. (A¯ + B) = AB LHS: = A .B = AB = (Since A. (B + C) = AB + AC) (Since A .

However. (A + B¯) . This technique can be effectively used up to six variables beyond which the technique becomes cumbersome. we can not be sure that all the expressions can be simplified. another technique is used which is a graphical method. The Truth table can be the expressions which are in the form of Sum of Products (SOP) or Product of Sum (POS). In each map.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Karnaugh·s Map We saw that the Boolean expression can be simplified. In a µn¶ variable K-Map. there are 2n cells. Ex. Each cell corresponds to one of the combinations of µn¶ variables. the variables & all possible values of the variables are indicated. Gray code is used here for identifying each cell. In this technique information contained in a truth table is represented in a Karnaugh¶s map. Hence. Provides a method for simplifying & manipulating Boolean expression. This technique is called Karnaugh¶s map. (A¯ + C) (A + B + C¯) . SOP = A + AB + ABC A¯BC + AB¯C + ABC¯ Ex. POS = (A + B) . Moreover to remember all Boolean identities is also a problem.

On the other hand. K-Map in 2 Variables A¯ A B¯ B 0 1 0 1 K-Map in 3 Variables A¯B¯ A¯B C¯ C AB AB¯ 0 1 00 01 11 10 K-Map in 4 Variables A¯B¯ AB¯ C¯D¯ CD¯ CD C¯D AB A¯B 00 10 11 01 00 10 11 01 . Each term in a SOP is called as minterm & in a POS its called as maxterm. a µ0¶ is entered in the cells of a K-map corresponding to each term of the POS expression. in case of POS.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Karnaugh·s Map A logical equation in SOP form can be represented on a K-map by entering 1¶s in the cells of k-map corresponding to each term of the expression.

Thus a full adder circuit is required. The full adder circuit can be possible in two ways. It is not a complete adder as it is not able to add carries generated from the previous addition. Ex-OR gives an output only when there is an odd number of ones at its input. Universal Adder-Subtractor: Since subtraction of 2 bits also involves addition (when 2¶s complements are used).Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Logic Gate Applications Half Adder: A half adder is used to implement addition of 2 binary digits. Half Subtractor: Subtracts 2 bits. It is not a complete subtractor as it is not able to consider borrows generated from the previous subtraction. Parallel Adder: Accepts 2 strings of binary digits & performs additions. . Use a set of 3 AND gates. Combine outputs of all AND gates using a OR gate to get a carry. the same circuit can be used for adding & subtracting 2 binary numbers. Give all the inputs to an Ex-OR gate to get a sum. Full Adder: Any addition is said to be complete only when 2 bits with carry generated are added. 2. Use two half adders and an OR gate for final carry. 1.

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Introduction to Logic Families ² A look into Logic Family Logic Gate Bipolar Logic Family MOS Logic Family Saturated Unsaturated PMOS NMOS CMOS Usually NMOS and CMOS are used. DTL Diode Transistor Logic TTL Transistor Transistor Logic ECL Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL has a highest speed of operation) .

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Features of Logic Family 1. Operating Frequency 11. Operating Temperature 9. 4. Current Specification Voltage Specification Noise Immunity Switched Speed Power Dissipition Fan Out 7. Fan In 8. Figure Of Merit 10. 6. 5. Availability Of Various Gates in a family Parameter Basic Gate Fan Out Power Dissipition Noise Immunity Propagation Delay Clock Frequency Available Functions Supply Voltage Cost TTL NAND 10 10mW Very Good 10ns 35MHz Vary High 5V Moderate ECL OR-NOR 25 40-55mW Poor 2ns >60MHz High 5V High MOS Inverter (NOT) 20 0mW Nominal 300ns 2MHz Low 3 to 15V Low . 2. 3.

A Combinational is designed as follows: 1. which perform certain logic functions. the output of a combinational circuit can be changed. First set of statements which describe a logic function is formalized. 2. Half adder.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Combinational Circuits ² Introduction A logic circuit is a set of gates. These statements are then converted to Boolean expressions. . By changing the inputs. parity checkers etc. 3. are logic circuits. Logic circuits are broadly classified as: Combinations circuits Sequential circuits In a combinational circuit the response of the circuit is decided by a set of inputs existing at a instant of time. full adder. These expressions are finally simplified either by using Laws of Boolean algebra or by employing K-map. Ex.

select any one signal as decided by control lines & allow that signal to appear at the output. decimal & alphabet. It¶s easy to work with a data we are familiar with i. decimal #) into a coded output signal. It has one input line. which a user can understand easily. It converts coded input into a familiar codes i.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Combinational Circuits ² Examples Multiplexers: These are the circuits which accept inputs from µn¶ devices. The input to these equipments must be in terms of 1 & 0. decimal & alphabets.e. Demultiplexers: These are the circuits that allow a common input to be directed to any one of the µn¶ available outputs depending on the control lines. it¶s difficult to understand data in 1¶s & 0¶s. their outputs will also be in terms of 1 & 0. .e. However. An encoder is needed in this case. It has µn¶ input lines. Decoders: Decoder is exactly opposite of encoders. Encoders: Most of the equipments work on digital signals. µm¶ control lines & µn¶ available output lines. µm¶ control lines & only one output. which converts active input signals (alphabets.

which can store past information. Flipflop Types: R-S flipflop. It maintains its output as it is. It¶s a bistable electronic circuit. The flip-flop is a basic cell for any sequential circuit and work as a memory. Counters & registers. They make extensive use of flip-flops. until something done to change its output. J-K master slave flipflops. Thus they require elements. It can be constructed using NOR or NAND gates. It¶s the logic circuit whose output depends on the current input apart from the previous inputs/outputs. Thus it behaves as memory. J-K flipflops. The flip-flop has two stable output states 0 and 1. the response of the circuit is decided by the current set of inputs as well as the past inputs or outputs. A sequential circuit may also include combinational circuit as a subsystem. Ex. D flipflops. Edge & level triggered flipflops. These circuits are used in computers and data acquisition system in form of counters and registers. .Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Sequential Circuits ² Introduction In a sequential circuit. T flipflops.

A high frequency clock pulse can be divided to get smaller frequency with a counter. Data can be put into or shifted out of register serially or parallely. They are very useful when the format of data needs to be changed (from serial to parallel or vice versa).Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Sequential Circuits ² Examples Counters: These are logic circuits which are used to count clock pulses. R & S inverted). They use only D flipflop. Data can also be moved from one flipflop to other. Apart from counting they can also be used for frequency division & sequencing. They are basically electronic counting systems. Sequencing is required where events need to follow a specific order. sequencing of instructions is very important. Types of Registers: SISO (serial in serial out) PIPO (parallel in parallel out) SIPO (serial in parallel out) PISO (parallel in serial out) . Modulus of a counter tells us the states the counter can count. (J & K. Counters are classified as: Asynchronous Counters Asynchronous UP counter Asynchronous Down counter Synchronous Counters Synchronous UP counter Synchronous Down counter Registers: Registers are group of flipflops cascaded to store strings of data bits. Ex. Hence they are also known as shift registers. Microprocessors. Registers do not count.

. These signals are very weak & moreover continuous. All of them involve conversion of data. Thus there is a need to change the data from Digital to Analog and Analog to Digital. temperature. humidity level. PH of material. various measurement equipments. The devices which help in such conversion are called as data converters. liquid flow. Many physical parameters have to be sensed.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Data Converters ² Introduction Now a days there is an intensive use of digital. these variations must first be converted into a digital form to be sensed & then suitable control action performed. liquid level. force. electricity etc. They have to be converted into a suitable form like current & voltage. digital TV. like pressure. The control information again needs to be converted back to analog form which will finally control the physical change. They are analog signals. In a digital control. various communication equipments. Digital control is widely employed in washing machine.

By using binary weighted resistor network 2. By using R-2R ladder network ADC (Analog to Digital Converters) These are the devices used in the input path of digital control systems. Flash ADC (Simultaneous or parallel ADC) Counter Type ADC Tracking ADC Successive Approximation ADC Single Slope ADC Dual Slop ADC . The basic problem in this conversion is µn¶ digital voltage levels have to be converted into a single analog voltage. They convert analog changes (caused due to change in physical parameters we want to control) into a digital form for correct monitoring and control.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Data Converters ² Examples DACs (Digital to Analog Converters) This converter accepts digital inputs & gives an analog output. There are various methods to convert analog variations into digital form. Two different ways of doing this: 1.

Bipolar memories use BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistors) while Unipolar memories use MOS or CMOS Transistors. µn¶ number of cells are packed in the form of rectangular array. occupy very little space. thus increases the cell density of the chip. They have replaced older devices like bubble memories and magnetic cores. Memories can further be classified as volatile and non-volatile memories depending upon their ability to store information in presence or absence of power supply.e. Memory cells can be either bipolar or unipolar.Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Memory Devices ²Introduction Semiconductor memories are widely used now a days for storing digital information. The cell density of the chip using bipolar memories are small. Bipolar memories are very fast but consume more power. flip-flops or capacitors. MOS memories are slow but very easy to construct. They can also be classified as static and dynamic memories based upon the storage element used i. cost. consume ideally zero power. A bistable flip-flop is the basic memory cell. . Memories are based upon their size. power consumption and speed. occupy more space and involve more technology in their fabrication. The capacity of memory chip is the total memory cells in that chip.

Digital Electronics Introduction Logic Gates Combinational Circuits Sequential Circuit Data Converters Memory Devices X Memory Classification Memory Volatile Non ± Volatile RAM Random Access Memory ROM Read Only Memory Static Memory SRAM Dynamic RAM DRAM ROM Read Only Memory PROM EPROM EEPROM Electrically Erasable PROM Programmable Erasable Read Only Programmable Memory ROM .

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