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Statistics

• Is a scientific body of knowledge

that deals with:

collection of data

organization or presentation of

data

analysis and interpretation of

data

Descriptive

•Statistics

Is a statistical procedure

concerned with describing the

characteristics and properties of

group of persons, places or

things; it is based on easily

verifiable facts.

.Inferential Statistics • Is a statistical procedure used to draw inferences for the population on the basis of the information obtained from the sample.

A numerical value that describes a characteristic of a population. • Sample. and so on) one wishes to investigate.Definitions • Population. objects. . It is the total collection of all the elements (people. measurements. Subgroup obtained from a population. events. • Parameter.

Definitions • Statistic. It is a numerical value that describes a particular sample. • Quantitative Data are numerical in nature and therefore meaningful arithmetic can be done. • Data. or a set of information gathered or under study. This are facts. Ex: age .

Ex: gender • Discrete Data assume exact values only and can be obtained by counting Ex: number of students .Definitions • Qualitative Data are attributes which cannot be subjected to meaningful arithmetic.

Ex: height • Constant is a characteristic or property of a population or sample which makes the member similar to each other. .Definitions • Continuous Data assume infinite values within a specified interval and can be obtained by measurement.

• Dependent.Definitions • Variable is a characteristic or property of a population or sample which makes the members different from each other. Ex: test scores . A variable which is affected by another variable.

A variable which affects the dependent variable. Ex: number of hours spent in studying .Definitions • Independent.

they just label. Ex: SSS Number • Ordinal numbers are used to label + rank. Levels of •Measurements Nominal numbers do not mean anything. Ex: size of t-shirt .

Ex: temperature • Ratio numbers are used to label + rank + equal unit of interval. do not have a true zero. have a true zero Ex: number of votes . Levels of •Measurements Interval numbers are used to label + rank.

Telephone number . 1. Number of subscribers to Philippine Daily News 3. Determine whether the set of data is qualitative or quantitative.Target Practice A. Models of cell phones 2. Weights of 1000 packs of a brand of noodles 4. Yes or No responses to survey question 5.

Target Practice B. Weights of all Grades 1 pupils in the Library School . Which of the following numbers is discrete or continuous? 1. Record of absent students in a class in Statistics 3. Number of customers in a restaurant 4. Number of cars parked in the basement of a building 5. Distance from town A to town B 2.

Target Practice C. interval(I). Identify the level of measurement: nominal(N). Temperature in Baguio last summer . ordinal(O). Rank of faculty 4. 1. or ratio(R) most appropriate for each of the following data. Exam score 5. Number of votes 3. Color of the eye 2.

Determining the Sample Slovin’s Size Formula: n is the sample size N n= N is the population size 1 + Ne 2 e is the margin of error The margin of error is a value which quantifies possible sampling errors. .

Determining the Sample The margin of Size error can be interpreted by the use of ideas from the laws of probability. it is what statisticians call a confidence interval. . Sampling error means that the results in the sample differ from those of the target population because of the “luck of the draw”. In reality.

Sampling Techniques Sampling is the process of selecting samples from a given population. Non-probability Sampling . Types: 1. Probability Sampling 2.

Sampling Techniques A. .It provides the basis for calculating the margin of error. Probability Sampling: Samples are chosen in such a way that each member of the population has a known though not necessarily equal chance of being included in the samples.Avoids biases . .

Sampling Techniques 1. Simple Random Sampling: Samples are chosen at random with members of the population having a known or sometimes equal probability or chance of being included in the samples. a. Lottery b. Generation of random numbers .

but there should be a random start. with k=N/n. Systematic Sampling: Samples are chosen following certain rules set by the researchers. This involves choosing the kth member of the population.Sampling Techniques 2. .

groups or clusters instead of individuals are randomly chosen. In this technique.Sampling Techniques 3. . Cluster Sampling: is sometimes called area sampling because it is usually applied when the population is large.

called strata. A process that can be used is proportional allocation. Stratified Random Sampling: This method is used when the population is too big to handle.Sampling Techniques 4. . thus dividing N into subgroups. is necessary.

. Non-probability sampling is one of the sources of errors in research. Non Probability Sampling: Each member of the population does not have a known chance of being included in the sample. personal judgment plays a very important role in the selection.Sampling Techniques B. Instead.

Sampling Techniques Types: 1. Convenience Sampling: This type is used because of the convenience it offers to the researcher. The only difference is that the selection of the members of the samples in stratified sampling is done randomly. Quota Sampling: This is very similar to the stratified random sampling. 2. .

. Purposive Sampling: Choosing the respondents on the basis of pre- determined criteria set by the researcher.Sampling Techniques 3.

The Direct or the Interview Method: In this method. A: Clarification can be done easily. . D: Costly and time-consuming. the researcher has direct contact with the researcher.Data Gathering Techniques 1.

large number of samples can be reached. The Indirect or Questionnaire Method: The researcher gives or distributes the questionnaire to the respondents either by personal delivery or by mail. D: Problem of retrieval .Data Gathering Techniques 1. A: Saves time and money.

Data Gathering Techniques The Questionnaire (characteristics) 1. .

It is designed to achieve objectives. 3. The directions are clear 5.Data Gathering Techniques The Questionnaire (characteristics) 2. . 4. It is designed for easy tabulation. There is a descriptive title/name for the questionnaire.

. 8. It also avoids double barreled questions. It phrases questions well for all respondents. It avoids the use of double negatives.Data Gathering Techniques The Questionnaire (characteristics) 6. 7.

Data Gathering Techniques Types of Questionnaire • Open – this type has an unlimited responses • Closed – this type limits the scope of responses • Combination – this type is a combination of open and closed types of questionnaire .

Data Gathering Techniques Types of Questions • Multiple choice – allows respondent to select answer/s from the list • Ranking – asks respondents ton rank the given items • Scales – asks respondents to give his/her degree of agreement to a statement (Likert-scale) .

A: Most reliable source of data D: Data are limited to what are listed in the documents .Data Gathering Techniques 3.The Registration Method: This method of gathering data is governed by laws.

Data Gathering Techniques 4. The Experimental Method: This method of gathering data is used to find out cause and effect relationships. A: Can go beyond plain description D: Lots of threats to internal and external validity .

emphasizing the most significant features and highlighting the most striking attributes of the set of data.Presentation of Data Textual Form: Data are presented in paragraph or in sentences. . This includes enumeration of important characteristics.

Presentation of Data Tabular Form: A more effective device of presenting data. frequency distribution table 3. contingency table . 1. stem and leaf plots 2.

pie chart 4. bar graph (histogram) 3. statistical maps . line graph (freq. pictograph 5. polygon. 1. ogive) 2.Presentation of Data Graphical/Pictorial Form: A most effective device of presenting data.

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