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INTRODUCTION OF POLYMER

Prepared by- Mr. Vishal B. Thakare

Assistant Professor, PARUL UNIVERSITY

(M.Tech Chemical, SVNIT Surat)

vishalbt88@gmail.com

Polymer- It is type of molecule made up by the repetition of some
simpler unit monomer.

Polymerization- The process of formation of polymer from
respective monomers is called as polymerization.

Degree of polymerization(DP)- The number of repeating units(n) in
the chain is called degree of polymerization.
 Polymers with high degree of polymerization are called high
polymers.
 Polymers with low degree of polymerization are called
oligopolymers or short chain polymers
 Polymers do not exhibit strength for n<30. Optimum strength of
most of polymers is obtained at ‘n’ around 600. The useful range
of ‘n’ is from 200 to 2000.

Classification of polymer Based on response Based on Based on Based on technology polymerization chemical structure constituents Homo polymer Co polymer Composite Thermosetting Thermoplastic Addition Condensation Polyblend Plastic alloy Alternating Random Block Graft Physical Chemical .

Physical Chemical Crystalline Amorphous Linear Branched Cross linked Stero Polymer Isotactic Atactic Syndiotactic .

The condensation polymer are formed by repeated reaction between two different bi-funcational or tri- funcational monomeric unit with the elimination of small molecules such as water.Urea formaldehyde resin.Formation of polyethene from ethene Formation of polypropylene from propene. Ex.Nylon 66. Ex..Nylon 6.. alchol. hydrogen chloride etc.The addition polymers are formed by the repeated addition of monomer molecules possessing double or tripple bond. Bakelite Addition polymer.Polymers which undergo some chemical change on heating and convert into infusible mass is called thermoset polymers. Ex. Condensation polymer.Thermosetting Polymers. These polymers are crossed linked or heavily branched molecules and can not be reused.. Terylene (dacron) .

Ex.When two different types of monomer are joined in the same polymer chain. Ex. Ex.Nitrile Rubber.In alternating copolymer two monomer are arranged in alternating fashion..Homopolymer. -A-B-A-B-A-B- . Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) Alternating copolymer .. polymer is called copolymer.A Polymer resulting from the polymerization of a single monomer called as homopolymer.Polyvinyl chloride Copolymer.

.In block copolymers one type of monomer group joined to monomer of another group. -A-A-A-B-B-B-A-A-A-B-B-B- .In random copolymers two monomers follow the random order.Random copolymer.-A-B-B-B-A-A-B-A-A- Block polymer . Ex.. Ex.

Polyblend polymer.Graft copolymer .mixture of vinyl resin with nitrile rubber.It is mixture of two or more polymer. Plastic alloy.Plastic alloy is the physical blending or chemical grafting method.Composite polymers refer to those type of polymer that result from the bonding two or more homogenous material with different material properties to derive final product with certain desired material and mechanical properties. Composite polymer . .In graft copolymers back bone of one monomer joined to another monomer in their side chain. Ex.

Thermosetting plastic Crystalline polymer.If polymer units are joined in a linear fashion polymers is said to be linear polymer. Ex.It is completely regular.Amorphous polymer. Ex. symmetrical and ordered arrangement of polymeric chains with uniaxial orientation..It is completely random.Rubber.Fiber Linear Polymer. irregular and dissymmetrical arrangement of polymeric chains. -A-A-A-A-A-A-A- .. Ex.

- Cross polymer.When monomer units are joined in branched manner is called branched polymer. Ex. Ex.Branched Polymer.- .A polymer is said to be a cross linked polymer if the monomer units are joined together in a chain fashion.

It is the type of polymer in which the characteristic group are arranged in an alternate fashion. . Ex.Isotactic polymer. Ex.- Syndiotactic polymer.It is the type of polymer in which the characteristic group are arranged on the same side of the main chain.

It is the type of polymer in which the characteristic group are arranged in an Irregular fashion around the main chain. . Ex.Atactic polymer.

Polymers of lower chain length are soft and gummy.  Strength of the polymer can be increased by increasing the intermolecular force by the introduction of groups like carboxyl.Physical & Chemical Properties of polymer- 1) Strength  It depends upon the magnitude of force of attraction between polymeric chains. while higher chain polymers are hard and strong. fluorine.  In a cross-linked polymers. resulting in a giant solid molecule. extending in three dimensions. So they are strong and tough materials. By controlling the chain length. . all chains are interconnected by strong chemical covalent bond. hydroxyl. chlorine. the strength of the polymer can be varied from soft and flexible to hard. nitrile along the chain. since the movement of intermolecular chains are totally restricted.

 This type of material. .2) Deformation (Plasticity)  It is the slipping of one chain over the other on the application of heat or pressure or both. readily takes the shape of the mould and on cooling.  The linear or branched polymers show the greatest degree of plastic deformation. the polymer becomes rigid in the moulded shape. because plasticity decreases with fall of temperature. Elasticity  It is the stretching and recoverance of original shape of the polymeric chains after the removal of stress. in heated state.

 The tendency to swell or solubility of polymers decreases with the increase in chain length or molecular weight of polymer. denser close packing of polymeric chains makes the penetration of solvents or chemical reagents in the polymeric material more difficult.  polymers of more aliphatic character are more soluble in aliphatic solvents whereas polymers of more aromatic character are more soluble in aromatic solvents.  Polymers having polar groups (-OH.  In crystalline polymers. –COOH. or Cl) swollen or dissolved in polar solvents whereas polymers having nonpolar groups (-CH3 or -C6H5) swollen or dissolved in non polar solvents. .3) Chemical Resistance and Solubility  The chemical nature of monomeric units and their molecular arrangement determines the chemical resistance of the polymer. so crystalline polymers exhibit more chemical resistance or lesser solubility.

 Greater the degree cross-linking in the polymer. lesser is its solubility and greater is its chemical resistance. .

rigidity and heat resistance.  Crystalline polymer possess clear melting point. 4) Physical state of Polymers  Relative arrangement of polymeric chains with respect to each other may result in an amorphous or crystalline state of polymer. the crystallites provide required hardness.  Linear and branched polymers do not form crystalline solids because their long chains prevent efficient packing in a crystal lattice.  In such polymers. symmetrical and ordered arrangement of polymeric chains with uniaxial orientation.  In the crystallization process it has been observed that relatively short chains organize themselves into crystalline structure more than longer molecules. .  A crystalline state is characterized by a completely regular.

irregular.  It depends upon chain length . During this temperature transformation of a polymer from a rigid material to one that has rubber like characteristics occur. extent of cross linking barrier which hinders the internal rotation around the chain links and rate of heating or cooling. An amorphous state is characterized by a completely random. brittle and glass-like in mechanical behavior. and dissymmetrical arrangement of polymeric chains.  Above glass transition (Tg).  Amorphous polymer do not possess clear melting point. polymers are usually hard. 5) The glass transition temperature (Tg)-  It is the temperature at which the internal energy of the chains of the polymer increases such that the chains just starts leaving their lattice sites. flexible and rubbery (elastic)-like in mechanical behavior.  Below glass transition temperature (Tg). . polymers are usually more soft.

 Tg of a linear polymer is lower than that of a partially cross linked polymer because the chains in a linear polymer are held together by weak vanderwaal forces which can be overcome by providing even small amount of energy. .  Crystalline polymers have no glass transition temperature as it lead to dense close packing of polymeric chains. A cross linked polymer does not possess any Tg because such polymer does not soften and is destroyed at a high temperature.

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Mechanical Properties Stress-Strain Curve- .

Strain curve- .Stress.

abrasion.  It is the ability of a polymer to withstand both plastic and elastic deformation. cutting. or penetration.  Hardness is associated with strength  It is closely associated with material structure.  It is measured by its ability to absorb energy under impact loads. . composition. 2) Toughness  It is the amount of energy a polymer can absorb before actual fracture or failure takes place. Mechanical Properties 1) Hardness  The ability of a polymer to resist scratching.

It is measured by finding out area under stress.  It gives capacity of the polymer to bear shocks and vibrations. shear and impact. compressive. 5) Resilience  It is the elastic energy released by the material as result of stress removal. .Depending upon nature of force strength can be classified as tensile. 4) Strength-  Strength represent the capacity of the material to with stand external force or internal force resistance per unit area .3) Stiffness  It is the measure of the ability of material to resist deformation.strain curve within elastic limit.

Polymer Based Industries- 1) Plastics- 2) Rubber- 3) Fiber- 4) Coating- .