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Cardiovascular

System
Hendra 03 Collection
Assistants of Physiology
Physiology Department
Medical Faculty, Hasanuddin University

ANATOMY OF THE HEART
THE HEART WALL :
 Endocardium
 Myocardium
 Epicardium
 Pericardium
INTERNAL ANATOMY
OF THE HEART :
1. Right Atrium
2. Right Ventricle
3. Left Atrium
4. Left Ventricle

Semilunar valves : .VALVES : 1. Atrioventricular valves : .bicuspid (mitral) valve .pulmonary valve 2.tricuspid valve POSITION OF THE HEART : Left : linea medioclavicularis sinistra Right : linea parasternalis dextra Top : intercostal II Bottom : intercostal V .aortic valve .

Atrioventricular (AV) node 4. Bundle branches 6.The Conducting System 1. Sinoatrial (SA) node 2. Internodal pathways 3. Bundle of His 5. Purkinje fibers .

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Action Potential of the Heart .

Heart Cycle .

Rapid filling b. Slow filling (diastasis) c. Ejection Phase 4. Isovolumetric Contraction Phase 3. Atrial contraction 2. Isovolumetric Relaxation . Filling Phase a.Heart Cycle : 1.

Heart Sounds There are four heart sounds : S1 : the AV valves close S2 : the semilunar valves close S3 : blood flowing to the ventricles S4 : atrial contraction .

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Instrinsic regulation : Heterometric :the ability of heart to increase it’s pressure at different heart volume Homeometric : the ability of heart to create different pressure at the same volume . Regulation of heart activities 1.

2.autonomic nervous system symphathetic (thoraco-lumbal) parasymphathetic (cervico-sacral) -baroreceptor reflex -vasomotor area hormonal .Extrinsic regulation central nervous system .

Stroke Volume (SV) : the amount of blood pumped out of each ventricle during a single beat. Heart Rate : the frequency of heart beats in 1 minute. . Cardiodynamics CO = SV x HR Cardiac Output (CO) : the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in 1 minute.

EDV – ESV = SV . Cardiodynamics End-Diastolic Volume (EDV) : the amount of blood in each ventricle at the end of ventricular diastole (the start of ventricular systole) End-Systolic Volume (ESV) : the amount of blood remaining in each ventricle at the end of ventricular systole (the start of ventricular diastole) Ejection Fraction : the percentage of the EDV represented by the ESV.

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Factors Affecting Cardiac Output .

Electrocardiography (ECG/EKG) .

Q : septum interventricular . U wave : late ventricular depolarization . Electrocardiography (ECG/EKG) 1.R : apex .S : posterobasal 3. P wave : atrial depolarization 2. QRS complex : ventricular depolarization . T wave : ventricular repolarization 4.

Electrical Conduction . Impulses Forming 2. DYSRHYTHMIA 1.

Tachycardia 3. Premature contraction . Bradycardia 2. Impulses Forming 1.

Reentry 4. Sinoatrial block 2. Bundle branch block .Electrical Conduction 1. Atrioventrikuler block 3.

Terima Kasih .