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4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime

stochastic approach

J. A. Cobano, D. Alejo, G. Heredia and A. Ollero
Robotics, Vision and Control Group, University of Seville (Spain)

“4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach”
3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems

INDEX

• Introduction
• Problem Formulation and Objectives
• ASCDR system
• Simulations
• Conclusions and Future work

“4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach”
3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems

INDEX • Introduction • Problem Formulation and Objectives • ASCDR system • Simulations • Conclusions and Future work “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .

safety and reliability •Gradient based-techniques – Particle Swarm Optimization •4D trajectory planning algorithm: – Cooperative – Stochastic optimization technique – Anytime approach •Medium-Term and Short-Term Conflict Detection and Resolution “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems . INTRODUCTION •Workload of the controllers •New Decision Support Systems •Future ATM system: efficiency.

INDEX • Introduction • Problem Formulation and Objectives • ASCDR system • Simulation and Experiments • Conclusions and Future work “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .

PROBLEM FORMULATION AND OBJECTIVES • Collision-free 4D trajectories: Minimum safety distance • Input – Initial flight plan of each aircraft – Parameters of the aircraft model – Location of each aircraft – ETA of each aircraft – The available computation time • Maneuvers allowed: – Add intermediate waypoints – Change of speed • Objectives – Plan collision-free 4D trajectories – Meet the ETA “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .

INDEX • Introduction • Problem Formulation and Objectives • ASCDR system • Simulation • Conclusions and Future work “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .

ALGORITHM DESCRIPTION • Blocks of the proposed system – Detection algorithm – Roundabout technique – Particle Swarm Optimization “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .

DETECTION ALGORITHM • Algorithm used – Axis-aligned minimum bounding boxes – System described as a set of boxes aligned with the coordinated axes – Six comparisons for each pair of boxes in the system where A=[Ai.Ae] and B=[Bi.) • Disadvantages – Accuracy is not very necessary “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .004 sec aprox.Be] are the intervals in one coordinate • Advantages – Simple: few parameters will describe the system – Low execution time (0.

DETECTION ALGORITHM “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .

PLANNING ALGORITHM • Collision-free 4D trajectory planning – Roundabout technique (quickly compute a feasible but non- optimal solution) – Algorithm based on a stochastic optimization technique (Particle Swarm Optimization) • Anytime approach: trajectory quality improves with increase in available computation time “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .

PLANNING ALGORITHM • Optimization problems with multiple local minimum • Gradient-based techniques are not suited • Global optimization methods  efficient and effective alternative • PSO presents advantages with respect to evolutionary techniques: – Lower time of computation – Better quality of solution “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .

PLANNING ALGORITHM • Particle Swarm Optimization is based on the research of bird and fish flock movement behavior “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .

PLANNING ALGORITHM • Particle Swarm Optimization – Cost function: – Maneuvers allowed: • Add intermediate waypoints • Change of speed – Solution • Collision-free 4D trajectory • Meet the ETA – Best solution improves over the time • Can be stopped at any time and the current best solution will be returned “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .

PLANNING ALGORITHM • Particle Swarm Optimization: Example “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .

y) of the intermediate waypoint “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems . PLANNING ALGORITHM • 100 initial particles • State of each particle: (x.

PLANNING ALGORITHM • Particle Swarm Optimization: Example “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .

INDEX • Introduction • Problem Formulation and Objectives • ASCDR system • Simulations • Conclusions and Future work “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .

SIMULATIONS • Scenario: 10x10x10m3 • Number of aerial vehicles: 2-5 (200 tests for each case) • Number of intermediate waypoints: 1 • Allowed speed: 0.3m/s – 2m/s • Random generation process of the tests • Each problem is formulated as a set of entry and exit points located in one of the lateral sides of the scenario • The initial trajectories should ensure that generating a conflict • OPTIMAL SOLUTION: solution computed after 100 iterations “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .

SIMULATIONS “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .

SIMULATIONS “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .

SIMULATIONS “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .

671 20 0.306 40 1.503 70 3.638 50 1.237 10 0.989 30 1.482 80 4. SIMULATIONS • Anytime approach (3 UAVs) Quality (%) Time (s) First solution 0.404 “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .931 60 2.

INDEX • Introduction • Problem Formulation and Objectives • ASCDR system • Simulation • Conclusions and Future work “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .

CONCLUSIONS • A CDR algorithm has been designed – Both lateral and speed maneuvers implemented – Near-optimal • Several simulations done – Designed a test battery of 800 tests • Stochastic any-time approach introduced – Quality of the solution depends on the available time “4D trajectory planning in ATM with an anytime stochastic approach” 3rd International Conference on Application and Theory of Automation in Command and Control Systems .

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