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# UNIVERSITY OF LJUBLJANA

## Different Approaches to the Seismic Analysis

of Bridges
T. Isaković
Two Basic Design Approaches

## Direct Displacement Based

Strength Based Design (SBD) Design (DDBD)
FE
Fy = FE/Rm
Du = m Dy

Force
Fy
Force

m = Du/Dy
Dy Du Dy Du
Displacement Displacement

## Equal displacement rule

Long and medium periods Rm = m
Peak ground acceleration ag = 0.35g
h1 = h3 = 14 m Strength
Soil type A
Based Design
h2 = 21 m
4 x 50 m = 200 m
i=1 2 3 ... 15 16 17

h1 h2 h3

Plastic hinge
0.4m
Properties of plastic hinges
column My [kNm] y strain hardening 3.2m 4.0m
h1, h3 46700 3,07·10-3 0,07
k=?
h2 35800 3,72·10-3 0,06
0.4m
20
18 0.4m 1.2m 0.4m
16
Sa(TC) = 14.7 m/s2
Acceleration Sa

2.0m
14
12
S10a
8
6 Sa(TD) = Sa(TD)5% = 3.68 m/s2
4
2
TB = 0.15s TC = 0.5s TD = 2s
0
0 1 2 3 4
T
Period T
Strength Based Design

FE=mSa

Fy = mSa/q
Force

Dy Du
Displacement
Direct displacement based design

## • Yield displacement is estimated:

2.25𝜀𝑦 𝜙𝑦 (𝐻 + 𝐿𝑠𝑝 )2
𝜙𝑦 = Δ𝑦 =
𝐷 3
• Ultimate displacement is defined based on Dy and
chosen ductility m or maximum drift (e.g. 3,0%)

Fy
Du = mDy
Force

ksec
keq

Dy Du Displacement
Direct displacement based design

0.7

0.6
Sd(TD)5% x = 5%
Displacement Sd

0.5
Sd(TD)xeq xeq
0.4
Du
0.3

0.2

0.1
Tsec TD
0
0 1 2 3 4

Period T
DDBD

Fy

Force

ksec
keq

Dy Du Displacement
Two Basic Design Approaches – Are they different?

## - No: For structures, which can be represented

by SDOF models and when the same
assumptions and the input data are taken into
account
- Typically different assumptions are used and
the input data can be also different
- Main sources of differences:
- DDBD does not take into account equal
displacement rule
- Estimation of the initial equivalent (pre-
yielding) stiffness in the SBD
Equal Displacement Rule
Ieff ≠ Igross

FE

Fy1 Rm = 1.5
Force

Fy2 Rm = 3.0

Dy2 Dy1 Du

Displacement
Yield displacement Dy

140

120

100

Moment [kNm]
80

Circular columns 60

40

20

0 0,05 0,1

curvature [1/m]

## Approximately the same Dy displacements for columns

with the same geometry and quality of steel
Equal Displacement Rule
Ieff ≠ Igross

## Same diameter: D = 2.1 m

FE Same mass: m = 800 t

Fy1 Rm = 1.5
Force

Fy2 Rm = 3.0

H3
H2
H1
Dy2 Dy1 Du

## Displacement H1 = 7.5 m H2 = 10.6 m H3 = 13.0 m

m1 = 0.5% m2 = 3.0% m3 = 6.5%
Equal displacement rule –
the same structure, different strength reduction

## Fe1 Essentially elastic

response
Fe2

Fy2 DCM
Force

Fe3

Fy3 DCH

D2 D3
Dy1 ≈ Dy2 ≈ Dy3 Displacement
Two oscillators with the same pre-yielding stiffness and mass
have the same ultimate displacements
Effective stiffness keff – SDOF systems

Fe 0.4 Sd(TD)
0.35

Displacement Sd
0.3
Force

0.25
Du
0.2
Fy
0.15
0.1
0.05
Teq TD
keq Dy Du 0
0 1 2 3 4

Period T
Displacement

## 𝒎 ⋅ 𝒄𝟐𝒂 𝒂𝟐𝒈 𝑻𝟐𝑪

𝒌𝒆𝒒 =
𝟒𝝅𝟐 (𝑹𝝁 𝚫𝒚 )𝟐
2.25𝜀𝑦 𝜙𝑦 (𝐻 + 𝐿𝑠𝑝 )2
𝜙𝑦 = Δ𝑦 =
𝐷 3
𝒎 ⋅ 𝒄𝟐𝒂 𝒂𝟐𝒈 𝑻𝟐𝑪
𝒌𝒆𝒒 =
𝟒𝝅𝟐 (𝑹𝝁 𝚫𝒚 )𝟐
The strength - SBD
SBD versus DDBD

SBD

Equal displacement
rule
DDBD

Empirical
expression
DDBD and the equal displacement rule

Empirical
expression

## Equal displacement rule

Comparison of reduction coefficients

1.20
1.00
Coefficient

0.80
cr
cr
0.60
cr1
cr1
0.40
Cr2(a = 5%)
cr2(a=5%)
0.20
Cr2(a = 10%)
cr2(a=10%)
0.00
1 2 3 4 5
Ductilty m
The ratio of the strength

1.4

1.2

1
Cr12/Cr2
cr12/cr2

0.8
Ratio

2 2
Cr2 (a = 5%)/Cr
cr22(a=5%)/cr2
0.6

## 0.4 Cr22(a = 10%)/Cr2

cr22(a=10%)/cr2
0.2

0
1 2 3 4 5
Ductilty m
Numerical example

m = 815 t Cross-Section
7m

1.8 m

## fsy = 500 MPa; esy = 0.0025; Es = 200 GPa

fck = 30 MPa, fcm = 38 MPa; Ec = 30 GPa
Rm = m = 3.5
Eurocode 8/2 spectrum, Soil B, PGA = 0.5g
Eurocode 8/2 spectrum, Soil B, ag = 0,5g
20
18
16
Sa(TC) = 14.7 m/s2

Acceleration Sa
14
12
10
8
6 Sa(TD) = Sa(TD)5% = 3.68 m/s2
4
2
TB = 0.15s TC = 0.5s TD = 2s
0
0 1 2 3 4

Period T

0.7
Sd(TD) = Sd(TD)5% = 37.27 cm
0.6
Displacement Sd

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2
Sd(TC) = 9.3 cm
0.1
TB = 0.15s TC = 0.5s TD = 2s
0
0 1 2 3 4

Period T
Standard SBD and DDBD procedures
SBD DDBD

## The stiffness corresponding to My

Modified SBD and DDBD procedures
SBD DDBD

## The stiffness corresponding to My

Numerical example - Overview

## Method FR [kN] Du [cm] Dy [cm] Cr

SBD 2608 12.25 3.50 -
(Ieff = 50% Igross)

## DDBD 2560 17.86 5.10 0.640

Modified
1786 17.86 5.10 0.535
SBD

Modified
1786 17.86 5.10 0.535
DDBD
Conclusions

## • The main sources of differences between SBD and DDBD:

– Estimation of the equivalent pre-yielding stiffness in SBD
– Equal displacement rule is not taken into account in DDBD
• When these differences are eliminated the results for SDOF
systems are the same
• The pre-yielding stiffness of SDOF systems can be estimated
based on the estimated yield displacement
• The evaluation of the response using the nonlinear analysis is
strongly recommended for structures with very different
components
• In structures, where the influence of the higher modes are
important the multimode nonlinear static methods or nonlinear
response history analysis is strongly recommended