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Work Systems

and Ergonomics
Chapter 4

Action Items

 Work Systems, Ergonomics, and Human
Factors
 Responsible for slides 1 – 63 ONLY
for the exam

Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig, PhD, CPE 2

Introduction to Ergonomics
 Ergonomics is the multidisciplinary
science concerned with optimizing
human performance by matching the
task to the physical and mental
capabilities of the human operator

Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig, PhD, CPE 3

PhD. the psycho-social and behavioral aspects of people Summer 2006 Brian N. the person may be considered in the context of mental. CPE 4 .Introduction to Ergonomics  People may be studied from two broad points of view  In one. the person may be thought of as a machine  In the second. or psychological elements. emotional. Craig.

 In many ways the human body is like a complex machine with three major systems: Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD. CPE 5 . Craig.Introduction to Ergonomics  In Safety Engineering it is important to study people both ways.

CPE 6 .Introduction to Ergonomics  The skeletal structure of the body resembles the frame and support members of a machine. corresponds to the control system of a machine Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD.  The muscular system provides and transmits power to the various body members. and  The nervous system. Craig. including the brain.

Introduction to Ergonomics
 This chapter is, by far, the most
important chapter in this book.
 The safety engineer, especially, must
understand human capabilities and
limitations and consider them in all
aspects of his or her job.
 Failure to do so can lead to accidents.

Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig, PhD, CPE 7

Information Input
 One very important part of human endeavor
is the input of data, that is, how the brain
receives information and directs various body
parts to respond.
 Except for a few short tasks that are repeated
so often that they become habit, every
motion requires a signal of some sort, and
decisions as to what that signal means and
what the response should be.
Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig, PhD, CPE 8

Information Input
 All other responses result from a visual,
auditory, tactile, or other form of signal.
 Our sensory organs must recognize the signal
and send the message to the brain
 The brain must make a decision based on
what it knows about that signal and pass
along through the nervous system, a
message to do something in response.

Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig, PhD, CPE 9

Summer 2006 Brian N.Information Input  Failure to recognize the signal.  Similarly. misinterpretation of the signal or lack of knowledge about it will usually result in a wrong response. CPE 10 . for any reason. PhD. will result in failure to respond. Craig.

 Some must be put on hold until other decisions are made.  When signals arrive at the brain too fast or too many at one time. CPE 11 . Summer 2006 Brian N.Information Input  The brain can handle only so much information. and some may be lost entirely. PhD. the brain must delay decision. Craig.

Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD. while inadequate or vague information will usually result in error. Craig. CPE 12 .  We must design the input data accordingly.Information Input  This is especially likely to happen if the worker is not well trained to recognize or understand the signal(s).  This should tell us that giving too much information will slow the response.

Visual Capabilities
 Printed information, scales, and gages
require that the worker not only learn
to recognize that information, but also
that he or she must be able to see it
clearly.
 Visual acuity is the measure of one's
ability to see small details.

Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig, PhD, CPE 13

Visual Capabilities
 Acuity is measured as the smallest
angle between one side of the character
to the other that can be seen, as
illustrated in Figure 4.1

Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig, PhD, CPE 14

Visual Capabilities

Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig, PhD, CPE 15

PhD.Visual Capabilities  Acuity is expressed as the reciprocal of the angle in minutes of arc. a higher number indicates better visual acuity.0 minutes. Summer 2006 Brian N.50.  If the angle is 2. Craig.  Thus. CPE 16 . the visual acuity is 1/2 or 0.

Summer 2006 Brian N.Visual Capabilities  The four major factors beyond native capacity that affect visual acuity are luminance (or brightness). PhD. background reflection. and motion. CPE 17 . Craig. luminance contrast (referred to merely as contrast).

adaptation to darkness. color discrimination. include location of the object in the field of vision. Craig. CPE 18 . Summer 2006 Brian N. changes in focal distance. PhD. and changes in direction. but not in terms of visual acuity.Visual Capabilities  Other factors that affect the ability to see.

Visual Capabilities
 To help clarify terms, the term
illumination refers to the amount of
light that reaches the working surface.
 Luminance refers to the amount of light
given off by some source.

Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig, PhD, CPE 19

Visual Capabilities
 In general, the greater the luminance or
intensity of light, the better.
 However, as intensity increases,
reflection from other surfaces or
sources also increases.
 More often, though, too little rather
than too much light is the problem.

Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig, PhD, CPE 20

Visual Capabilities
 Within a reasonable range of
luminance, the contrast between the
reflectivity of the detail and that of the
area immediately surrounding it is very
important.
 The greater this contrast the easier it is
to see the detail.

Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig, PhD, CPE 21

Craig.  This should be low. Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 22 . PhD.Visual Capabilities  Background luminance refers to the ability of surfaces outside the immediate work area to reflect light into the worker's eyes.

 Floors should be quite dark. CPE 23 .Visual Capabilities  Ceilings should be a light color to reflect light downward as much as possible. Craig. Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD.  Walls should also be a light color down to about eye level and a darker color below that level.

CPE 24 . should be a moderately dark color and nonreflecting.  Green. PhD. and buff colors are commonly used to fulfill these requirements. gray.Visual Capabilities  The background. Craig. including desktop and machine surfaces. Summer 2006 Brian N.

Visual Capabilities  Relative motion between the worker and the object makes seeing more difficult. the more difficult seeing becomes.  If visual information is important. CPE 25 .  The faster the motion. PhD. Summer 2006 Brian N. any such relative motion should be reduced to a minimum. Craig.

Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD. where it cannot. the display should be tested under simulated conditions. Craig. CPE 26 .  Relative motion between the viewer and the visual display should be eliminated.Visual Capabilities  Compensation for motion can sometimes be provided by maximizing luminance and contrast.

CPE 27 . Summer 2006 Brian N.  Acuity diminishes very rapidly as an object moves away from the direct line of sight. the field becomes very limited. PhD. as illustrated in Figure 4-2. Craig.Visual Capabilities  The human eye can receive an image from a very large field of vision  But if high visual acuity is required.

CPE 28 . PhD. Craig.Visual Capabilities Summer 2006 Brian N.

objects or signals should be kept within about 30' of the worker's line of sight. generally less than 5'. Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 29 .  Alphanumeric characters and quantitative scales normally require concentration within a few degrees. PhD.Visual Capabilities  To be sure a person's visual attention will be captured. Craig.

Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig. PhD.Illumination and Color  The important characteristics of lighting for safe and healthful working conditions include the following:  Sufficient luminance (brightness)  Sufficient contrast  Lack of glare  Acceptable color. CPE 30 .

Craig.Illumination and Color  Some of these characteristics are interrelated. Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 31 .  Luminance is the measure of the amount of light emitted from the source or sources of light. PhD.

Summer 2006 Brian N.Illumination and Color  Illuminance.  The amount of luminance which should be provided depends on each of the other factors listed above. often called the illumination level. PhD. Craig. CPE 32 . is the measure of the amount of light which falls on the surface being observed.

PhD. CPE 33 .Illumination and Color  Illuminance (Lux) = candlepower D² where candlepower is measured in candellas (cd). Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig.

Summer 2006 Brian N. of light.  Reflected light may tend to emphasize or diminish certain colors. it produces sensations that we often regard as weird light. CPE 34 . or color.  If light of some other array of frequencies is reflected toward our eyes. Craig.Illumination and Color  Our eyes are accustomed to an array of frequencies. PhD.

 For our purpose we will call this phenomenon “seeing. we do not actually "see" an object. CPE 35 . but only the light that is reflected from that object.  The qualities of that reflected light are a result of the frequencies of the light source and of the pigment in the object absorbing or reflecting those frequencies. Craig.Illumination and Color  Technically speaking." Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD.

the important issue is how to achieve sufficient illumination. PhD. and color without glare.  Ideally. CPE 36 . contrast. Craig. the engineer should be able to do the following four things: Summer 2006 Brian N.Illumination and Color To the engineer.

Summer 2006 Brian N. Select the best type of light source 2.Illumination and Color 1. PhD. Select the best colors for backgrounds. Select the best luminaries 3. CPE 37 . Craig. Locate these luminaries in the best place 4.

Illumination and Color  The three categories of light sources for artificial lighting are incandescent. PhD. Summer 2006 Brian N. and high-intensity discharge. Craig. fluorescent. CPE 38 .

PhD. CPE 39 .Illumination and Color  The major advantage of incandescent light is the quality of the light-that is. the range of frequencies. Craig. Summer 2006 Brian N. it is difficult to control glare.  The major disadvantage of incandescent light is that because of the point source of light.

 Fluorescent lamps are used almost exclusively by industry and in most other buildings for general lighting. CPE 40 . PhD.  They provide a broader source of light and are also more efficient in the amount of current used for a given level of illumination. Craig. Summer 2006 Brian N.Illumination and Color  Fluorescent lamps are available in a variety of color components or frequencies.

and project light that is capable of penetrating long distances. Craig. PhD.  Metal halide is another. less commonly used. but they are very efficient. Summer 2006 Brian N. form.  The light from these sources does not provide for color characteristics as well as incandescent or fluorescent lamps. CPE 41 . have long endurance.Illumination and Color  High-intensity discharge lamps include mercury vapor and sodium lights.

PhD. is that without an outer cover.Illumination and Color  A major disadvantage of high-intensity discharge lamps. Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig. CPE 42 . however. these lamps emit very harmful ultraviolet light.

Summer 2006 Brian N. three levels-roof lighting. ceiling or intermediate lighting.Illumination and Color  When lighting is designed for industrial buildings. Craig. CPE 43 . PhD. and local lighting-are generally considered.

Craig. this commonly involves mercury vapor or sodium lamps. PhD. CPE 44 .Illumination and Color Roof-high lighting is that at the highest point-that is. roof-support level. Summer 2006 Brian N.  Today.

 Fluorescent lamps are almost always used at this level.Illumination and Color  The ceiling or intermediate level is at the 3-meter level whether or not there is a false ceiling. CPE 45 . PhD. Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig.

mounted on the bench or machine within a meter of the point at which the worker is concentrating. Craig. Summer 2006 Brian N.  Incandescent lamps are usually used on machines because they are smaller in size. CPE 46 .Illumination and Color  Local lighting is that which is provided at the workstation. PhD.

 This is usually the weak point in an otherwise good lighting program. PhD.Illumination and Color  Cleaning and replacing weak or burned- out lamps should be done on a periodic schedule to assure proper lighting. CPE 47 . Craig. Summer 2006 Brian N.

PhD. as developed by the Illuminating Engineers Society (IES).Illumination and Color  Table 4 -1 is a partial listing of the recommended levels of illumination for different tasks.  These are widely used as guides in industry. CPE 48 . Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig.

CPE 49 . Craig. PhD.Illumination and Color Summer 2006 Brian N.

cream. PhD.  Ceilings and upper portions of walls should be a light color but not shiny. Craig. Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 50 .Illumination and Color  One last step in designing illumination is the background color scheme. flat white. or ivory are commonly used.

 Floors should be darker still. CPE 51 . PhD.Illumination and Color  To avoid glare. Craig. but not too dark. walls below eye level height should be a little darker and definitely not shiny. Summer 2006 Brian N.

CPE 52 . Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD. Craig.Auditory Capabilities  Hearing is another sensory ability that we use more than we realize.  Our hearing ability is unique in many ways.  We can discriminate among a variety of sound stimuli and choose what we want to hear to a surprising degree.

 Hearing is a fragile sense and is easily damaged.  For this reason. PhD. Craig.Auditory Capabilities  Normal hearing covers a range of frequencies from about 20 hertz to about 20. CPE 53 .000 hertz. Summer 2006 Brian N. noise control is a very important subject in safety engineering and will be discussed in the chapter on noise and noise control.

Craig. PhD.Auditory Capabilities  It should be assumed in designing auditory signals that many adult workers have some hearing impairment. CPE 54 . particularly in the upper range of frequencies. Summer 2006 Brian N.

or a speech-that signal should be easily recognizable among the variety of sounds that make up the background noise. CPE 55 . Craig. a whistle. a siren.Auditory Capabilities  If a worker is expected to hear and understand an auditory signal-a bell. PhD. Summer 2006 Brian N.

Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 56 .  Masking may be unintentional and very bothersome when it obscures sounds that need to be heard. it is called masking.  But masking may be used intentionally to block out undesirable sounds. Craig.Auditory Capabilities  When one sound tends to obscure another sound. PhD.

Craig. CPE 57 .  The relative characteristics of each are given here.  Visual signals and auditory signals each have their advantages.Auditory Capabilities  There is often a choice of what type of signal to use to get the attention of the worker and convey a message. PhD. Summer 2006 Brian N.

Craig. Summer 2006 Brian N. Visual signals may be designed so that they can be referred to continuously or repeatedly for a long period of time. CPE 58 . A wider range of codes and variety of information can be expressed with visual signals than with auditory signals. PhD.Auditory Capabilities 1. except for speech. 2. whereas auditory signals must be presented in a given sequence and a person cannot refer back to them.

Craig.Auditory Capabilities 3. CPE 59 . 4. Auditory signals are generally better attention-getters and are much superior in most environments for warning and alarm. Auditory signals do not require that the hearer be oriented in any particular direction as do visual signals. nor are they dependent on lighting conditions. Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD.

PhD. Craig. Speech can also accommodate questions and an exchange of information.Auditory Capabilities 5. an auditory message is less fatiguing than a visual signal. 6. CPE 60 . Summer 2006 Brian N. Speech is the most versatile form of signal because it can be changed on the spot as conditions warrant. If a great amount of information must be conveyed.

The message contains spatial relationships. 4. The message is complex or the worker will need to refer back to it.  Use visual signals if- 1. Summer 2006 Brian N. the criteria for the selection of visual versus auditory signals can be summarized as shown below. 3. Craig. The worker is already burdened with auditory signals. 2. PhD. CPE 61 . The environment is very noisy.Auditory Capabilities  In general.

The message requires immediate attention. PhD. The worker's visual system is already burdened.Auditory Capabilities  Use auditory signals if-. 4. Summer 2006 Brian N. The message can be made short and simple. The worker is not likely to be oriented in a given direction. Craig. 5. CPE 62 . 3. The environment lacks good illumination. 1. 2.

PhD. Craig. The message requires much versatility.Auditory Capabilities  Use speech if- 1. Summer 2006 Brian N. 3. CPE 63 . 2. The worker is expected to ask questions or offer some feedback to the message. The message is very complex.

speed and accuracy of these movements  These movements are used to guide tools and controls. and to change the location and the position of the body itself-all by the action of muscles Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 64 .Human Motor Capabilities  Motor capabilities refer to the movements of the body as well as the force. PhD. Craig. to exert force on them.

Craig. PhD. CPE 65 .Human Motor Capabilities  The muscles contract by means of a chemical reaction that is initiated by nerves  Some body motions occur without conscious effort and are a result of training  They have become so habitual that we are not aware of directing the action Summer 2006 Brian N.

CPE 66 .Human Motor Capabilities  In Safety Engineering we need to study these habitual motions. Craig. particularly those that may influence behavior in times of an emergency  It is extremely important for the Safety Engineer to recognize situations in which a worker might respond to a signal in a dangerous manner Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD.

PhD. CPE 67 . Summer 2006 Brian N. we need to study those motions that require conscious effort  Practically all human physical work involves hand and wrist movements  In many tasks the hands and arms repeat the sequence of steps over and over. Craig.Human Motor Capabilities  For the most part.

3. and the purpose of the task may vary from one situation to the other. but the types of motions are repeated as follows: 1. Craig. CPE 68 . PhD. Move it to a given location. Summer 2006 Brian N. Grasp for the object.Human Motor Capabilities  The object or objects involved. the location. 2. Reach for the object.

use the object in some way. 6. 5. position the object with respect to another object. PhD.Human Motor Capabilities 4. release the object. Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig. CPE 69 .

finger motion.  Two ranges of arm motion have been defined and are referred to as the "normal work area" and the "maximum work area. Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig.Human Motor Capabilities  The "reach" and "move" steps are similar in that they generally involve arm motion but very little. if any."  These are illustrated in Figure 4-3. PhD. CPE 70 .

Human Motor Capabilities Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 71 . Craig. PhD.

PhD. CPE 72 .Human Motor Capabilities  The normal work area is that area that can be reached by extending and moving only the lower arm-that is. or legs. Craig. Summer 2006 Brian N. bending at the elbow with the upper arm essentially stationary  The maximum work area consists of space that can be reached by moving the whole arm without changing the position of the shoulders. back.

Human Motor Capabilities  In most cases it is desirable that all work be done within the normal work area  If that is not feasible. Craig. PhD. CPE 73 . it should at least be kept within the maximum work area Summer 2006 Brian N.

then the upper arm should be used Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig. PhD.Human Motor Capabilities  Moving the back is tiring and slow and involves a much greater risk of injury  If the task requires greater strength than can easily be done with the lower arm. CPE 74 .

the hands.Human Motor Capabilities  The "grasp" step involves the fingers and. PhD. Craig. CPE 75 . and a contact grasp Summer 2006 Brian N.  There are three types of grasps: a pressure grasp. sometimes. a hook grasp.

CPE 76 . Craig.  A contact grasp involves touching the object and pushing it along a surface without picking it up.Human Motor Capabilities  The pressure grasp requires the squeezing of the object with the fingers or whole hand. thereby exerting a force sufficient to gain control of it. PhD. Summer 2006 Brian N.  A hook grasp involves using the hand as a hook or platform so that the object can lifted without squeezing it.

CPE 77 .Human Motor Capabilities  In designing work methods. consideration should be given to the nature of the object and what is to be done with it. Craig. Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD.  Although it is well to minimize the effort in grasping. it is often important and even essential that the worker have good control of the object.

 Example of a pin holder  Grasp often requires concentration and may even require visual guidance as well Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig. PhD.Human Motor Capabilities  If an object to be grasped is left from a previous task. it should be left in such a position that it can be grasped most easily. CPE 78 .

Craig.  In designing work methods. it is impossible to grasp two separate objects simultaneously if either or both grasps require mental concentration. and intended to be moved together Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD. CPE 79 . it is better to avoid simultaneous grasps unless the objects are close together. easily grasped.Human Motor Capabilities  Because the brain can process only one bit of information at a time.

it is often difficult or impossible to position two pairs of objects simultaneously Summer 2006 Brian N.  Position includes orienting and aligning one object with respect to another and fitting them together. PhD.  As with grasp.Human Motor Capabilities  The positioning sequence is similar to the grasp in that it usually requires mental concentration or visual guidance. Craig. CPE 80 .

PhD.  Figure 4-4 is a guide for an engineer to use when designing simultaneous motions of the left and right hands Summer 2006 Brian N.Human Motor Capabilities  It is equally difficult to grasp one object and position another at the same time. Craig.  Any activity that requires mental concentration should be done independently of any other activity. CPE 81 .  To expect a worker to do otherwise is to invite errors and accidents.

PhD. CPE 82 . Craig.Human Motor Capabilities Summer 2006 Brian N.

 Generally the head is moved for one of two purposes: to help align the eyes in a particular direction or to help achieve body balance.Human Motor Capabilities  Movement of the head and eyes is also required in many tasks. PhD. Summer 2006 Brian N.  Movement of the eyes should be minimal if it is important that the person see something quickly and accurately. CPE 83 . Craig.

 The leg muscles are much stronger.  Since the feet and legs are used to maintain body balance in a standing position.Human Motor Capabilities  The feet and legs can sometimes be used to relieve the hands of work. and in some cases can do a better job. CPE 84 . but they are slower and not as easily controlled for accurate movement. one should avoid trying to operate pedals or to do other work with the feet while standing. Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig. PhD.

CPE 85 . especially when the spinal column is in a bent or twisted position. Summer 2006 Brian N.  For these reasons the back should not be used for lifting or carrying any more than a light load.  The segments of the spine. the spine. the vertebrae. PhD. Craig.Human Motor Capabilities  The trunk of the body is supported by a very weak bone structure. which also contains the major nerve system. are attached to each other by ligaments rather than by bone joints. and the ligaments are quite easily torn.

Human Motor Capabilities  The nerves in the spinal column are partially enclosed by extensions of these vertebrae and are susceptible to damage if the vertebrae are forced out of line. CPE 86 . damage to the nerves. Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD.  Injury to the vertebrae. and excessive stress to the ligaments are among the most common ailments of workers doing physically active work  Figure 4-5 illustrates the construction of the spinal column. Craig.

CPE 87 . Craig. PhD.Human Motor Capabilities Summer 2006 Brian N.

 The extent of the problem is revealed in The Bureau of Labor Statistics' analysis of 1994 injury and illness cases involving days away from work. PhD. Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig. costing industry billions of dollars each year. CPE 88 .Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders  Musculoskeletal disorders are the leading cause of disability among people in their working years.

Craig. with more than half affecting the back Summer 2006 Brian N. accounted for 162.  Pushing and pulling.424 cases) were due to overexertion in lifting.317 overexertion cases. mostly affecting the back. as well as holding and carrying.  Of these.Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders  Thirty-two percent of all lost work-day cases (705. PhD.800) were the result of overexertion or repetitive motion. CPE 89 . 52 percent (367.

576 cases).Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders  Just over 13 percent of the overexertion/repetitive motion lost work-day cases were injuries or illnesses associated with repetitive motion (92. PhD. Craig.  The target regions most often affected include the wrist (55 %). CPE 90 . shoulder (7 %). and back (6 %).  From this data it is clear that the back and upper extremities are the targets of most musculoskeletal disorders Summer 2006 Brian N.

Craig.  Lifting with the back in a hunched position is still common among industrial workers even though there has been considerable publicity and training on "proper" ways of lifting (see Figure 4-6) Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD.Lifting  There is evidence that lifting and forceful movement. CPE 91 . and whole-body vibration are work factors associated with back injuries. heavy physical work. awkward postures.

CPE 92 .Lifting Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD. Craig.

 It is usually desirable to keep the spinal column in as nearly a normally erect position as possible and free from twisting  The muscles of the legs should be used to minimize the load on the back muscles  Lifting should be done with a smooth continuous motion.Lifting  It is always desirable to keep the object as close to the body as possible (see Figure 4-7).  Quick jerky motions should be avoided Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD. CPE 93 . Craig.

Lifting Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD. Craig. CPE 94 .

Lifting  Control strategies should focus on engineering out the exposures as much possible or practical. Craig. CPE 95 . PhD.  This includes converting the manual task to a mechanical task.  In fact. a lifting device should be provided for lifting any heavy object and when lifting must be done repeatedly for a long period of time Summer 2006 Brian N.

CPE 96 .Lifting  A wide range of lifting devices is available. PhD. conveyors and lift trucks.  Improvements can be made to the workstation and layout to prevent torso bending and twisting. Craig. it should be minimized and kept between knuckle to shoulder height as much as possible Summer 2006 Brian N. including cranes. hoists.  If lifting must be done.

or strains) involve damage to the tendons. upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders (also known as. cumulative trauma disorders. repetitive motion disorders. repetitive use of tools. CPE 97 . synovial and bursal membranes).  Key entry. Craig. PhD. bones. muscles.Hand-Intensive Work  Work-related. and nerves of the upper extremities. tendon sheaths (e.. and repetitive reaching and grasping are activities associated with work-related upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders (WRUEMDS) Summer 2006 Brian N.g.

CPE 98 .  Carpal tunnel syndrome. PhD. tendinitis.Hand-Intensive Work  They are common in industries where there is hand-intensive work including meatpacking. and hand/wrist. shoulder. and garment manufacturing. Craig. automobile assembly.  The target regions often affected include the neck. elbow. poultry processing. and hand- arm vibration syndrome are three examples of this class of disorder Summer 2006 Brian N.

Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 99 . Craig.  Vibration syndrome or Raynaud's Syndrome is characterized by blanching of the fingers due to constriction of the local blood vessels. tenderness. causing dull pain.Hand-Intensive Work  Carpal tunnel syndrome is a disorder that results from the compression of the median nerve that provides sensation to the palmar side of the hand. and movement discomfort around the affected area.  Tendinitis is the result of tendon inflammation. PhD.

CPE 100 . Craig.Hand-Intensive Work  Risk factors include awkward sustained postures. forceful exertions. repetition. and low frequency vibration. PhD.  Examples of awkward static postures include a flexed (Figure 4-8) or deviated wrist and shoulder abduction  There is good evidence that worker exposure to a combination of factors is associated with an increased risk of injury or illness Summer 2006 Brian N.

PhD. Craig. CPE 101 .Hand-Intensive Work Summer 2006 Brian N.

minimal reaching. elbows down close to the body) Summer 2006 Brian N.Hand-Intensive Work  Control strategies should focus on workstation and tool design to reduce or eliminate worker exposure to the risk factors. PhD.  The redesign effort should allow the individual to assume a posture that is optimal for upper-extremity muscular work (e. CPE 102 .g. Craig.. straight wrist.

5 minutes every hour in addition to the established break periods) and medical surveillance to detect early symptoms before they become more serious Summer 2006 Brian N.  Examples include providing adequate rest periods (for highly repetitive work. Craig. CPE 103 .Hand-Intensive Work  Administrative controls in conjunction with sound engineering controls can help further reduce the exposure. PhD.

Vibration  Vibration may be transmitted from an external source in such a manner that it is further transmitted through the skeletal structure to all body members.”  If the vibration is transmitted to part of the body only. it is called “segmental vibration”. Craig.  This is called “whole-body vibration. PhD. such as a tool's vibrating the hand or arm.  Either one can cause damage Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 104 .

as when standing or sitting on a surface that is vibrating. the heavier internal organs may tend to remain stationary. CPE 105 . PhD. the internal organs of the body may not respond to this vibration in the same way as the bone structure  Generally. thus causing a strain on these systems Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig. a greater mass will have a lower natural frequency  When the spinal column and rib cage are excited at some given frequency.Vibration  When the whole skeletal structure is vibrating.

and this makes it difficult to set limits  Variables include frequency of the vibration. PhD. Craig.Vibration  Body members can tolerate some vibration without damage  Limits to this tolerance depend on many factors. and direction of transmissions  Tolerance varies considerably from one person to another Summer 2006 Brian N. amplitude. CPE 106 .

CPE 107 .Vibration  Among the greatest offenders in whole-body vibration disorders are industrial lift trucks and agricultural machinery.  Suspension systems on these machines are not well designed. PhD. especially with whole-body vibration Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig.  Work platforms that are attached to vibrating equipment may transmit that vibration  It is the vertical component of vibration that usually causes problems.

CPE 108 . Craig.Vibration  The first approach to correcting any problem caused by vibration should be an attempt to eliminate the source of that vibration  If that is not possible or feasible. PhD. an attempt to interrupt. or damp. the transmission of that vibration should be made Summer 2006 Brian N.

Vibration  Identifying the exact source is essential to any attempt to solve the problem  The source may become quite apparent by listening to or touching various parts of the device  If it is not. Craig. it may be necessary to use instruments to measure frequencies Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD. CPE 109 .

CPE 110 . proper lubrication of moving machine parts or replacement of worn bearings may reduce or eliminate the vibration and should be tried first  If that fails. Craig. a change in speed. PhD. may eliminate the vibration Summer 2006 Brian N. if feasible.Vibration  In some cases.

PhD. CPE 111 . Craig.Vibration  If the source cannot feasibly be changed to reduce the vibration. consider the path of transmission  Common culprits are shafts and panels that have natural frequencies such that they will vibrate at the frequencies being generated by the source  Changing the mountings of these parts to make them either more rigid or less rigid may stop this transmission Summer 2006 Brian N.

Vibration
 Changes in the design of a seat or standing
platform may alter the natural frequencies of
those structures so that the offending
frequencies will he damped.
 Vibration-absorbing pads on seats or
platforms will sometimes be sufficient.
 It is important to learn what the offending
frequencies are, and deal with them rather
than trying to damp other frequencies that
are not causing a problem
Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig, PhD, CPE 112

Worker-Machine Systems
 A worker-machine system may be very
simple, such as a person using a pencil,
or it may be very complex, such as a
crew operating a ship at sea.
 Such complex systems may be broken
down into simpler units for the purpose
of studying that system

Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig, PhD, CPE 113

Worker-Machine Systems
 In analyzing a worker-machine system, it may
be helpful to think of the machine as an
extension of the person
 People have eyes to see things, but
sometimes use lenses to help them see small
details or distant objects
 Similarly, wrenches and screwdrivers increase
our ability to apply torque, motors increase
our ability to create and/or control rotation,
and welding torches increase our ability to
apply heat
Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig, PhD, CPE 114

PhD. that the muscular system can manipulate it. Craig.Worker-Machine Systems  When designing a tool or device. CPE 115 . and that the nervous system can control it. we always must consider carefully how well the body will accept it  We should be sure that the skeletal structure can accommodate the device.  We should try to ensure that the person can use the machine without undue stress and without damaging the device Summer 2006 Brian N.

PhD.  The basic idea in safety engineering is to design machines and tools that are compatible with the capabilities and limitations of the person who will be likely to use them Summer 2006 Brian N. then undesirable results-accidents-are likely to occur.Worker-Machine Systems  If these criteria are not fulfilled. CPE 116 . Craig.

CPE 117 . PhD. Timing error) Summer 2006 Brian N. they are thought of as errors of the worker rather than of the machine  The two types of errors are:  Intentional errors  Unintentional errors  Errors of omission  Errors of commission (Performing an act incorrectly. Sequence error. Craig.Worker-Machine Systems  There are two general types of errors that can be committed in a worker-machine system  Generally.

is a failure to make any response or to recognize that a response is called for Summer 2006 Brian N.  Unintentional errors are those we commit accidentally  An error of omission. PhD. Craig. but that are wrong.Worker-Machine Systems  Intentional errors are those that we commit while believing that we are making the correct response. CPE 118 .

people react according to their experience and training  Other signals require only a little thought in order to respond  Such reactions are referred to as stereotyped reactions Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 119 . PhD. Craig.Worker-Machine Systems  When a signal or stimulus is given.

Craig. PhD. CPE 120 .Worker-Machine Systems  Stereotyped reactions can be divided into two categories with respect to the kind of relationship that exists between the stimulus and the response associated with it  One type of reaction involves a well- understood spatial relationship of location and/or motion.  The other type involves a conceptual relationship Summer 2006 Brian N.

CPE 121 . Craig.  These enable the worker to make a faster and a more accurate response.Worker-Machine Systems  In designing a worker-machine system.  In choosing displays or designs that will bring about stereotyped reactions. one should take advantage whenever possible of known stereotyped responses. PhD. one must consider who will be likely to use that display or device Summer 2006 Brian N.

PhD. Craig.Worker-Machine Systems  Table 4-3 illustrates several common relationships that should be used whenever they are appropriate  A spatial relationship that occurs very frequently in machine and equipment design is the right-hand screw principle Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 122 .

PhD. CPE 123 .Worker-Machine Systems Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig.

Craig.  A designer should try to visualize each step of the worker's operation of the device to ascertain what motions and relationships the worker will expect Summer 2006 Brian N.Worker-Machine Systems  Table 4-4 illustrates several color codes that have been adopted and used quite widely  These may not yet be considered as stereotyped in the minds of people in the general public. but in many industries they are well understood. CPE 124 . PhD.

PhD. Craig. CPE 125 .Worker-Machine Systems Summer 2006 Brian N.

Craig. CPE 126 .  A person familiar with such a calculator can use it without searching for the keys Summer 2006 Brian N. people have learned more than one relationship for a given set of circumstances  Consider the arrangement of numerals on a small calculator as shown in Figure 4-9.Worker-Machine Systems  In some cases. PhD.

Worker-Machine Systems Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig. CPE 127 . PhD.

PhD. CPE 128 .Worker-Machine Systems  Figure 4-10 shows a pushbutton telephone with the same numerals arranged in a different order  Now we have two well-established but contradictory relationships Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig.

Craig.Worker-Machine Systems Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD. CPE 129 .

but it may also be subject to the whims of the moment Summer 2006 Brian N.  The brain develops a hierarchy by which it places priorities on incoming information.  This hierarchy is the product of training and experience. the brain can process only one thought at a time. PhD.Worker-Machine Systems  A very important factor was mentioned earlier. Craig. CPE 130 .

Craig. but otherwise they vie for time in the system Summer 2006 Brian N. the brain will accept and process only one bit of information at a time  If two bits of information reinforce each other they may be processed as one.Worker-Machine Systems  Regardless of priorities. PhD. CPE 131 .

Worker-Machine Systems  This characteristic of the worker- machine system is often overlooked  Too frequently a task involves two or more simultaneous activities that both require mental concentration  This situation invariably results in errors. CPE 132 . PhD. Craig. if not accidents Summer 2006 Brian N.

CPE 133 . the system will never fail Summer 2006 Brian N. whether a tool. or a person fails to do what was intended at a particular time.  One common and very useful project a safety engineer can undertake is the study of the reliability of a system such as a worker- machine system. a piece of equipment. PhD.Worker-Machine Systems  Accidents usually happen when something.  If both the worker and the machine perform their tasks properly. Craig.

Machine  It should be apparent that people possess some characteristics far superior to any that could be designed into a machine. PhD. people have some very serious limitations. many of which do not exist or are less severe in machines Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig.Worker vs. at least with today's technology  On the other hand. CPE 134 .

Craig. PhD. Machine  Table 4-5 lists some of the major ways in which a person excels over machines. and others in which a machine can be designed to excel over a person Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 135 .Worker vs.

Worker vs. PhD. CPE 136 . Craig. Machine Summer 2006 Brian N.

Worker vs. PhD. training. CPE 137 . Craig. Machine  One rule that should always be followed in assigning tasks to people and to machines is that people should always feel superior to the machine or tool that they use  What makes a person feel superior to the machine may vary depending on the person's background. and personal interests Summer 2006 Brian N.

CPE 138 . namely: 1. Machine  Getting the right person for the job is often as important as designing the job for a person  Three conditions should exist to make a job satisfying to a worker. the worker must have real responsibility Summer 2006 Brian N. the job must utilize the worker's skills. PhD.Worker vs. 2 it must be meaningful. Craig. and 3.

Human Behavior  The reliability of a worker-machine system depends on the reliability of both the worker and the machine  Both are prone to breakdown or failure Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 139 . Craig. PhD.

PhD. Craig.Human Behavior  Prediction of behavior is not so easy  Certain human characteristics are fairly consistent. CPE 140 . and some of them have been utilized by management Summer 2006 Brian N. but so many variables affect human behavior that prediction is difficult  Psychologists have developed several theories of human behavior.

CPE 141 . PhD.Human Behavior  Three of these theories are particularly appropriate to human behavior in work conditions  Douglas McGregor proposed two concepts of worker motivation Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig.

Craig. PhD.Human Behavior  His Theory X assumes that workers are not motivated by any satisfaction they might derive from doing a good job. CPE 142 . and by the fear of disciplinary action  If management wants the worker to perform in a safe manner. it must provide some tangible reward for doing so and some punishment for failure to do so Summer 2006 Brian N. but rather only by pay or other rewards.

Human Behavior  McGregor's Theory Y assumes that the worker is.  The task of management is to find ways to make the job satisfying to the worker  Studies and observation indicate that most workers are motivated to some extent by job satisfaction. but that they also need some external incentive to achieve what is expected of them Summer 2006 Brian N. or can be. PhD. CPE 143 . motivated by job satisfaction. Craig.

a sense of identification. PhD.  Theory Z refers to the relationships among workers and the team effort  Peer pressure. G. CPE 144 . Craig. referred to as Theory Z. Ouchi detailed in his book.Human Behavior  Another theory. Theory Z: How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge. has been proposed by W. and camaraderie all have an effect on the performance of each of the workers involved Summer 2006 Brian N.

CPE 145 . PhD.Human Behavior  Abraham Maslow has presented another theory that is widely accepted. a person concentrates on satisfying those needs.  He contends that there is a hierarchy of human needs. and only when this has been done will he or she move on to the next higher level. Craig.  Figure 4-11 shows Maslow's need hierarchy Summer 2006 Brian N.  Starting at the lowest level.

CPE 146 .Human Behavior Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD. Craig.

 Second. CPE 147 .Human Behavior  This diagram might suggest two approaches. Craig.  First. PhD. management might try to place a worker in the type of task best suited to his or her level of need. management might try to provide conditions and opportunities that would encourage the worker to ascend to the next level Summer 2006 Brian N.

Human Behavior  Another approach to behavior focuses on the development of attitudes in the mind of the worker  Each of us is the product of all the experiences we have had in our lives  In a work environment. PhD. CPE 148 . Craig. the factors that most affect workers' attitude-such as working conditions or the design of tools or equipment-can generally be controlled or influenced by management Summer 2006 Brian N.

Human Behavior  The attitude of management toward the worker's welfare can play a major role in shaping workers' attitudes  Almost nothing is more important than attitude in determining behavior and safe performance in the workplace Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 149 . Craig. PhD.

Craig. CPE 150 .The Body in Stress  When we speak of the human body in stress. and so on  Another form of stress occurs when the sensory channels are overloaded with information being transmitted to the brain Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD. family problems. we are generally referring to the physiological and emotional symptoms that are associated with worry and anxiety over work pressures.

 Only one bit of information can be processed at a time. the greater are the chances of distortion and error. PhD.  Other information must be held in some order of priority until it can be processed (time sharing). the person is under stress. Craig.The Body in Stress  When information comes to the brain faster than the brain can process it. CPE 151 . with concomitant mental fatigue or stress Summer 2006 Brian N.  The longer information waits.

consisting of three related elements: 1. 3. PhD. physiological changes in the body. like mental fatigue. CPE 152 . a feeling of tiredness. a reduced capacity to do work Summer 2006 Brian N.The Body in Stress  Physical fatigue. 2. is a complex phenomenon. Craig.

Craig.The Body in Stress  The muscles use oxygen to replenish the chemicals needed for contraction  Blood carries oxygen to the muscles through the circulatory system and carries away the waste products of the chemical reactions. PhD. primarily carbon dioxide and water  The bloodstream also transports the nutrients needed for muscular and other bodily activities Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 153 .

the faster breathing. tends to collect in the muscles and restricts their movement. Craig. formed as part of the chemical reaction in muscular contraction.  The muscles cannot function to their full capacity because lactic acid. CPE 154 .The Body in Stress  When oxygen is not supplied as fast as it is needed. and increased blood pressure continue until the oxygen debt is repaid. rapid heartbeat. PhD.  When the worker stops doing this excessive physical work. and then all systems return to normal Summer 2006 Brian N. the body begins to build up an oxygen debt.

PhD.  When the arms are raised above the head.  The most efficient flow of blood occurs when the upper arms are nearly parallel with the body and the hands are about at the level with the waist or chest. the arm muscles tire very easily Summer 2006 Brian N. therefore. CPE 155 .The Body in Stress  The position of the arms affect the flow of blood and. the amount of oxygen carried to the arm muscles. Craig.

The Body in Stress  A reduced capacity to do work is another characteristic of fatigue  Workers complain of being tired and seem to lack the capacity to do their jobs. PhD. sleep. but many cases of loss of the capacity to do work require further explanation Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig. CPE 156 .  Other factors such as diet. and worry obviously contribute to the physical condition of a worker.

The Body in Stress  Figure 4-12 helps to illustrate how stress causes accidents.  The demands of a task also vary from one moment to another. CPE 157 . PhD. fatigue. and distractions. Craig.  A worker's ability to perform a task continually varies due to variations in mental stress.  This is represented by a jagged line varying above and below a “normal” level of activity.  This is also shown by a jagged line varying above and below a “normal” level of demand Summer 2006 Brian N.

The Body in Stress Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 158 . PhD. Craig.

 However. if at some instant a peak demand exceeds the ability of the worker. CPE 159 .The Body in Stress  A worker's ability to perform a task should exceed the demands of the task  Thus. the normal level of ability is shown to be above the normal demand of the task. PhD. Craig. failure to perform the task properly is likely to happen and be the cause of an accident Summer 2006 Brian N.

Craig. it is most likely to be called "human error"  To prevent such an occurrence. it is necessary to study carefully the variations of the task and take steps to reduce the variation  It is also important to study the possible variations in the ability of the worker Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD.The Body in Stress  In most accidents where this situation occurs. CPE 160 .

and the safety engineer may often be called upon both to provide safety instruction and to ensure compliance  Safety training begins with the hiring of an employee Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD. CPE 161 .Safety Training  Safety training is a management responsibility. Craig.

Craig. are commonly required Summer 2006 Brian N. and emotional-needed for the job  Pre-employment physical examinations. CPE 162 . mental. as well as written tests. PhD.Safety Training  Selection of employees should be based on specific qualifications-physical.

 The point is underscored by the fact that OSHA holds the employer responsible for the actions of employees when performance standards. Craig. PhD. which depend on employees' actions.Safety Training  Company policies on safety and health should be made clear at the time of hiring  Observation of safety and health rules and standards should be emphasized as an employee responsibility and a condition of employment. are enforced Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 163 .

CPE 164 .Safety Training  To maintain control over employee actions. the employer must make it known that compliance with these standards is a condition of employment and that violations may result in termination of employment Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD. Craig.

CPE 165 .Safety Training  A new employee or a person assigned to a new job rightfully expects proper training for the job  One aspect of employee training that is frequently neglected is what to do in abnormal conditions  Accidents usually do not happen when everything is running normally. Craig. they happen when something abnormal occurs. and training should include dealing with these out-of-the-ordinary conditions Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD.

as well as what to do if this occurs Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 166 . along with good record keeping. should help to predict what may go wrong  The employee should be taught to recognize the symptoms which warn of an impending failure.Safety Training  Fault trees and other techniques of identifying likely sources of failure. Craig. PhD.

especially where there are power tools. CPE 167 . and even intentionally. started equipment while pushing one another around  This is a problem that is often difficult to control. and valves  Many accidents have occurred when workers unintentionally.  It should be considered a serious offense and cause for reprimand and eventual dismissal from employment Summer 2006 Brian N.Safety Training  Horseplay is something that must never be permitted in any work area. switches. Craig. PhD.

Visual (Or Video) Display Terminals (VDTS)  The widespread use of computers has brought many problems that were seldom found. CPE 168 . PhD. or nonexistent. before  One problem is the fear of radiation from the video screen Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig.

CPE 169 . illumination should be much less-about 25 to 30 footcandles (300 Lux) is the recommended level Summer 2006 Brian N.Visual (Or Video) Display Terminals (VDTS)  Poor lighting conditions and glare are serious and common problems. Craig. PhD. but ones which can be corrected  Recommended illumination for offices in which paperwork is done is usually about 45 to 50 footcandles (500 Lux)  But for areas where VDTs are used.

Craig. PhD. CPE 170 .Visual (Or Video) Display Terminals (VDTS)  Glare is one of the most common problems with VDTS  It is important that all sources of light are controlled so that light does not reflect off the screen into the operator's eyes  To control glare. workers may prefer individual workstation lighting Summer 2006 Brian N.

Visual (Or Video) Display Terminals (VDTS)  Lower-back pain. neck and shoulder pain. and wrist pain are common complaints among computer user  These are usually the result of poor posture and/or the lack of support Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig. CPE 171 . PhD.

Craig.Visual (Or Video) Display Terminals (VDTS)  The arrangement of the computer work area is critical in that there are usually three focal points which need to be coordinated-the keyboard. PhD. the screen. and some source of data or information  Generally. CPE 172 . the keyboard is the first to be positioned  The operator's hands and wrist should be three to four inches above his or her elbow Summer 2006 Brian N.

Visual (Or Video) Display Terminals (VDTS)  The screen should be directly--but not too far-above the keyboard  The top of the screen should be about at the same level or lower. CPE 173 . as the operator's eyes and from 18 to 24 inches in front of the operator's face (maybe even 30 inches with a larger monitor)  Figure 4-13 shows a typical computer workstation for an operator whose task is to type from data Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig. PhD.

PhD. CPE 174 .Visual (Or Video) Display Terminals (VDTS) Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig.

CPE 175 .Visual (Or Video) Display Terminals (VDTS)  The angles in the figure are incorrect  All of the angles should be greater than 90º  Overhead lighting should be directed onto the data source but not cause reflected light to shine into the operator's eyes Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig. PhD.

padded rest supports are very helpful  They should be placed under the forearm just behind the wrist Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig. CPE 176 . PhD.Visual (Or Video) Display Terminals (VDTS)  If the operator's wrists must remain in a fairly fixed position for long periods of time.

Visual (Or Video) Display Terminals (VDTS)  To accommodate operators of different heights and proportions. PhD. Craig. CPE 177 . the chair should be adjustable  The monitor should be mounted on a tilting and swiveling base Summer 2006 Brian N.

Craig. CPE 178 . frequent changes in activity are very helpful  Brief periods of exercise. PhD.Visual (Or Video) Display Terminals (VDTS)  As in other office jobs. can relieve tense muscles  Computer operators tend to become “glued” to their computer  Management can sometimes relieve this situation by assigning other tasks periodically that require moving about Summer 2006 Brian N. even while sitting.