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Personal Protective

Chapter 5

Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig, PhD, CPE 1

Action Items

Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig, PhD, CPE 2

A Last Resort
 Clothing and other items that people can
wear or carry on their bodies to protect
themselves from hazards
 Other PPE are not actually worn or carried
on the body
 PPE is something that by itself in no way
eliminates or reduces a hazard

Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig, PhD, CPE 3

A Last Resort
 This approach should NEVER be the
first or primary means of correction
 Should only be used as a last resort,
after all other efforts have failed

Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig, PhD, CPE 4

Why Resort to PPE LAST?
 Uncomfortable – therefore there will be resistance to
wear it unless there is a strong perception of a
severe risk
 Very expensive
 PPE must be properly selected, fitted, and maintained
to be effective
 Difficult to supervise and enforce proper PPE usage
 May hamper the ability of the worker
 By first trying to eliminate or isolate the hazard and
thereby preventing exposure, property damage is
prevented, as well as human injury
Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig, PhD, CPE 5

CPE 6 .  When PPE is required OSHA requires employers to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the workplace to identify these potentials Summer 2006 Brian N.PPE  Safety engineers goal is to PREVENT the accident  Eliminate  Isolate  Etc. Craig. PhD.

g. Craig.Hazard Assessment Prior to PPE  Once the assessment is complete  Employers must certify in writing they have completed the hazards assessment and it must contain:  Document title (e. CPE 7 . Certification of PPE Hazards Assessment)  Identification of the area(s) or workplace evaluated  Date(s) on which the hazards assessment was conducted  Signature of the person(s) who conducted the assessment Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD.

Following the Hazards Assessment  Employers must provide appropriate PPE to employees  Employees must be trained on the use of the PPE Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 8 . PhD. Craig.

useful life.PPE Training  The PPE training must include  When the PPE is necessary  What PPE is necessary  How to don. CPE 9 . PhD. maintenance. and wear PPE  Limitations of PPE  Proper care. doff. Craig. and disposal of PPE Summer 2006 Brian N. adjust.

CPE 10 . PhD.After PPE Training  Employers must document they have completed the training  The documentation must contain:  Name of each employee trained  Date(s) of the training  Subject of the training Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig.

Craig. PhD.New Employees  Must be provided with PPE and trained on its use prior to starting working Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 11 .

Craig. CPE 12 . and management shall abide by the same rules as any other worker  If the exposure requires PPE. then this rule shall be abided by at ALL times  How can a supervisor enforce PPE usage if it is not enforce uniformly? Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD. engineers.PPE  All employees shall be treated the same  Supervisors.

Craig. PhD.PPE  If PPE is required. CPE 13 . it is the employers responsibility under OSHA to enforce the use of it Summer 2006 Brian N.

PhD. Craig.Cigarette Example Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 14 .

PhD. the employer is expected to provide it  What about safety shoes and prescription glasses  Arguments on both sides Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 15 . Craig.Who Provides the PPE?  If PPE is required for a given job and the equipment is not an item that the employee would normally wear.

Craig. CPE 16 . PhD. Summer 2006 Brian N.Eye and Face Protection  Eyes are very valuable and easily damaged  Safety glasses  Protection from  Impact from flying objects  Chips  Materials discharged from grinding operations  Molten metal  Potentially injurious light radiation  Etc.

Craig.Radiant Energy Protection – Filter Lenses  Table 5-1 Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 17 . PhD.

Eye Impact Protection  Typical materials used for safety glasses  Heat treated glass  Chemically treated glass  High strength plastic  Popular material is polycarbonate Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD. CPE 18 . Craig.

but OSHA currently requires eye protectors to comply with ANSI Z87. PhD.Standards for Impact Resistance of Glasses  ANSI Z87.1-2003 is out.1-2003 Summer 2006 Brian N.1-1989  Sets standards for the impact resistance of safety glasses  Any safety glasses should be ANSI approved  Ordinary eyeglasses (with side shields) are often worn. Craig.1-1989  Most eye protector manufactures are complying with ANSI Z87. CPE 19 . but do not provide impact protection  If employees need both vision protection and impact protection  need to be ANSI impact approved lenses (check with eyeglass manufacturer)  ANSI Z87.

Craig. welding. or sunlight need eye protection equipped to filter the radiant light energy Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD. CPE 20 .Exposure to Light Radiation  Workers exposed to light radiation form sources such as lasers.

PhD. Craig.Employees Exposed to Lasers  Laser safety glasses/goggles must be selected based on the wavelength of the laser Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 21 .

but working in the area.Employees that Weld  Must wear welding helmets with lenses that have appropriate shading  OSHA’s PPE standards specify the amount of lens shading based on electrode size or arc current (summary in Table 5-1)  Workers not actually welding. Craig. must also have eye protection from the welding arc  Not necessarily helmets. PhD. but appropriately shaded eye protection Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 22 .

Craig. so regular sunglasses with the maximum UV-A and UV-B protection may be adequate Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD.Working Outside  Employees working a considerable amount of time outdoors in bright sunlight should wear lenses that provide maximum protection from the ultraviolet spectrum of sunlight  May not need impact protection. CPE 23 .

chemical splash goggles should be worn  Goggles are designed to seal to the contour of a person’s face and provide eye protection from all directions Summer 2006 Brian N. etc.  In cases like these. safety glasses will not provide adequate eye protection  Splashes of hazardous chemicals. high concentrations of chemical vapors. PhD. CPE 24 . Craig.Safety Goggles  Some circumstances.

Face Shields  Face shields can provide protection to a worker’s face and neck  For splash protection  Should be worn OVER safety glasses. PhD. since shields generally do not provide the level of impact protection of the safety glasses Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig. CPE 25 .

PhD.Head Protection  Head protection required when there is a risk for injury to the head from falling objects  Also required when the work is near electrical connectors that could contact the head and cause electrical shock Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig. CPE 26 .

000 Volts AC  Class C  NO electrical protection Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD.1-1986 (also a 1997 version) specifications for impact and resistance  3 classes (electrical insulation resistance)  Class A  protection up to 2. CPE 27 .Head Protection  Most common  hard hat  Hard hats must meet ANSI Z89.200 Volts AC  Class B  protection up to 22. Craig.

Protective Footwear  Should be worn when there is a danger of foot injury due to falling or rolling objects. piercing the sole of the foot. Craig. when feet are exposed to electrical hazards. CPE 28 . and/or other hazards  Must meet ANSI Z41-1991 for impact and compression Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD.

CPE 29 . through the trachea.Respiratory System and its own Defense Mechanisms  Lungs expand and create vacuum  This draws air into the nose/mouth. PhD. there are the thin walled capillaries carrying the blood  This is where the gases (O2 and CO2 are exchanged) Summer 2006 Brian N. and bronchial system. Craig. and into the lungs  Within the lungs there are single cell layers of tissue in the form of pouches called the alveoli  On the other side.

CPE 30 . PhD. throat. the larger particles are filtered out by hair.5 microns or 0. and bronchial tubes. and impingement against the walls of these passages  The smallest particles (under 0. mucous.Respiratory System and its own Defense Mechanisms  As air moves through the nose. Craig.0005 millimeter) are usually exhaled during the next breath and do not stay in the lungs Summer 2006 Brian N.

005 mm) and about 30 micron (0. Craig. CPE 31 .Respiratory System and its own Defense Mechanisms  Particles between 5 micron (0.03 mm) present the greatest problem  Gases are not filtered at all and flow freely into the lungs Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD.

asbestos) attack the tissue and cause it to harden  eventually causing the tissues not to function Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD.g. CPE 32 .Solid Matter Damage  Solid matter can damage the lungs  Adhere to the surface of the alveoli and prevent gas transfer  Irritate the tissues and cause allergic reactions  Most serious  when air contaminants (e. Craig.

CPE 33 . the total surface are of the lungs is enormous  A portion can be damaged and normal breathing can continue  This is good. PhD. however.Lung Damage  Because of the shape of the alveoli. Craig. symptoms of lung deterioration do not become evident until long after much damage has been done Summer 2006 Brian N.

Craig. PhD.Asbestosis  Rarely identified until at least 5 years after exposure. there is serious permanent damage Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 34 . and more often 10 to 20 years after exposure  By that time.

CPE 35 . Craig. PhD.Gaseous Foreign Matter  Can be absorbed directly into the bloodstream  The respiratory system does NOT have a defense for toxic gases Summer 2006 Brian N.

CPE 36 .Respirators  Available to prevent hazardous particles and gases from entering the lungs  Several different types for the different contaminates  VERY important to have proper fit Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD. Craig.

CPE 37 . PhD. Craig.Air Purifying Respirators  Defined as respirators that filter the air  Two basic types of filters  Mechanical  Chemical Summer 2006 Brian N.

CPE 38 .Mechanical Filters  Composed of fibrous materials that remove the particles larger than a given size from passing through the filter  NIOSH classifies particulate filters according to their resistance to degradation from oil mists present in the workplace air Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD. Craig.

Mechanical Filters  Classifications  N – not oil resistant (should only be used when no oil is present)  R – resistant to oil (should not be used for more than 8 total hours when oil mists are present)  P – oil proof (not degraded by oil mists) Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig. CPE 39 . PhD.

97%  Particulate filters do NOT remove gases or vapors from the air stream Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 40 . PhD.Mechanical Filters  For each of these classifications there are 3 levels of filter efficiency  Filter efficiency = ability of the filters to remove particles  95%  99%  99. Craig.

such as activated or treated charcoal  This absorbing medium removes the gases and vapors as they pass through the filter  One cartridge will NOT protect against every gas/vapor Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig.Chemical Filters  Contain an absorbing medium. PhD. CPE 41 .

you MUST know what gases/vapors are present in the work area and then choose the appropriate cartridge  The cartridge will eliminate only a limited amount of the hazardous gas/vapor  This length of time a cartridge can be used is called its effective service-life Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD. CPE 42 . Craig.Chemical Filters  When choosing a chemical cartridge.

PhD. Craig.Effective Service Life  Based on  Primarily on concentration of air contaminants  Other factors can affect the service life  Humidity  Temperature  Breathing rate Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 43 .

Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 44 . Craig. PhD.

Craig.Types of Air Purifying Respirators  Mouthpiece  Half mask  Full face  Powered air purifying Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 45 . PhD.

PhD.Mouthpiece  Clench the mouthpiece with the teeth and hold nostrils closed w/ nose clip  These should only be used to escape an area with excessive air contaminants Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 46 . Craig.

CPE 47 . PhD. and eyes  Both considered negative pressure air purifying respirators. Craig. nose.Half-mask and Full Face Respirators  Half mask cover the mouth and nose of the wearer  Full face cover the mouth. because the air inside the tight-fitting face pieces goes to negative pressure when the person inhales Summer 2006 Brian N.

it is important the respirator fits the wearer’s face appropriately  If it does not contaminants can enter the mask  To ensure proper fit. Craig. PhD. CPE 48 . the wearer shall undergo a “fit-test” as defined by OSHA  Specific procedures can be found in the Appendices of OSHA’s respiratory standard (29 CFR 1910.134) Summer 2006 Brian N.Half-mask and Full Face Respirators  Because of this negative pressure inside the face piece.

PhD.Powered Air Purifying Respirators  Use motor and blower to pull air through the air filters and blow a stream of filtered air over the wearer’s face Summer 2006 Brian N. Craig. CPE 49 .

CPE 50 . Craig.Supplied Air or Self Contained Breathing Apparatus  To be used when  There is deficient O2  Concentrations are at levels which are immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH)  Air contains undetermined concentrations of unknown air contaminants Summer 2006 Brian N. PhD.

Supplied Air or Self Contained Breathing Apparatus  Difference between supplied air and self contained breathing apparatus  Self contained – air carried by the wearer Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 51 . PhD. Craig.

Craig.Selecting the Proper Respirator  Should be based on the nature of the hazardous air contaminants or atmospheres present in the workplace  NIOSH has a “Guide to Industrial Respiratory Protection” which provides strategies for proper respiratory selection Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 52 . PhD.

Employees  Should undergo a medical exam if they are required to wear a respirator  Should undergo a pulmonary function test  In addition to OSHA. PhD. Craig.2 Respiratory Standard) Summer 2006 Brian N. ANSI provides guidance on respiratory protection (ANSI Z88. CPE 53 .

Assignment Summer 2006 Brian N. CPE 54 . PhD. Craig.