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Transport Formats in UMTS Radio Network

Controller’s Software Implementation
Seminaariesitelmä / Jukka Valtanen / 08.01.2008

1 © Nokia Siemens Networks Seminaariesitelmä / Jukka Valtanen / 08.01.2008

01.Transport Formats in UMTS Radio Network Controller’s Software Implementation • Introduction – 3G network structure • UTRA radio interface protocol architecture – logical channels / transport channels / physical channels • Transport formats – data transmission between the physical (L1) and data link (L2) layer – transport format set (TFS) / transport format combination set (TFCS) • Transport format implementation in the RNC – RNC software architecture / program block under investigation – current implementation / analysis / improvements / further changes • Testing of transport formats in RNC software – testing process / testing methods / testing environment – test cases / analysis / improvements / results • Discussion and conclusion 2 © Nokia Siemens Networks Seminaariesitelmä / Jukka Valtanen / 08.2008 .

shorter delay times and higher bit rates  seamless mobility and inter-working with the existing GSM/GPRS networks – Need for resource optimisation from all underlying network components GSM = Global System for Mobile Communications GPRS = General Packet Radio Service 3 © Nokia Siemens Networks Seminaariesitelmä / Jukka Valtanen / 08.01.Transport Formats in UMTS Radio Network Controller’s Software Implementation • Introduction .3G network structure (1/2) Core network User Equipment Node B Radio Network Controller (Base Station) – 3G networks offer  wide range of advanced services  constantly growing network capacity.2008 .

3G network structure (2/2) Uu Iu Node B MSC/VLR GMSC PLMN RNC PSTN USIM Node B ISDN Cu Iub Iur HLR ME Node B Internet RNC UE Node B SGSN GGSN External UTRAN CN networks CN = Core Network The RNC is a service access point for all RNC = Radio Network Controller services that UTRAN provides the core UE = User Equipment network. i.01. 4 © Nokia Siemens Networks Seminaariesitelmä / Jukka Valtanen / 08. Node Bs connected to it.2008 .Transport Formats in UMTS Radio Network Controller’s Software Implementation • Introduction .e. UMTS = Universal Mobile Telecommunications System It owns and controls radio resources in UTRAN = UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network its domain.

general description” version 7.3.0 Release 7(2007-06) 5 © Nokia Siemens Networks Seminaariesitelmä / Jukka Valtanen / 08.2008 .201 “Physical layer .01.Transport Formats in UMTS Radio Network Controller’s Software Implementation • UTRA radio interface protocol architecture (1/3) 3GPP TS 25.

2008 . scrambling etc. HS-DSCH) • the RNC deals with transport channels Logical channels: • a service provided by the MAC layer to higher layers • for which purpose and what type of data is transferred • 6 control channels • 3 traffic channels DCH = Dedicated Channel E-DCH = Enhanced Dedicated Channel BCH = Broadcast Channel FACH = Forward Access ChannelPCH = Paging Channel RACH = Random Access Channel HS-DSCH = High Speed Downlink Shared Channel 6 © Nokia Siemens Networks Seminaariesitelmä / Jukka Valtanen / 08.) • 5 dedicated UL channels and 1 common UL channel • 4 dedicated DL channels and 10 common DL channels Transport channels: • a service offered by the physical layer (L1) to the MAC • how and with what characteristics data is transferred • 2 dedicated channels (DCH. PCH.Transport Formats in UMTS Radio Network Controller’s Software Implementation • UTRA radio interface protocol architecture (2/3) Physical channels: • layer 1 communication streams (frequency. FACH. RACH. E-DCH) • 5 common channels (BCH.01.

01.2008 .Transport Formats in UMTS Radio Network Controller’s Software Implementation • UTRA radio interface protocol architecture (3/3) – Mapping of transport channels onto physical channels Transport channels Physical Channels DCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH) Fractional Dedicated Physical Channel (F-DPCH) E-DCH E-DCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel (E-DPDCH) E-DCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel (E-DPCCH) E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel (E-AGCH) E-DCH Relative Grant Channel (E-RGCH) E-DCH Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (E-HICH) RACH Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) BCH Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) FACH Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH) PCH Synchronisation Channel (SCH) Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) MBMS Notification Indicator Channel (MICH) HS-DSCH High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH) HS-DSCH-related Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH) Dedicated Physical Control Channel (uplink) for HS-DSCH (HS-DPCCH) 7 © Nokia Siemens Networks Seminaariesitelmä / Jukka Valtanen / 08.

Transport Formats in UMTS Radio Network Controller’s Software Implementation • Transport formats (1/3) – Data transfer between MAC and PHY is organised by the transmission of transport blocks.  One transport block belongs to one transport channel  Several transport blocks can be sent simultaneously  transport block set  Transmission Time Interval (TTI) defines the time interval between two subsequent transport block set transfers between MAC and PHY Transport Block Size Transport Block Transport Block Transport Block Set Size Transport Block Transport Block Transport Block Set Transport Block Set Transmission Time Interval MAC PHY Transport Block Set 8 © Nokia Siemens Networks Seminaariesitelmä / Jukka Valtanen / 08.2008 .01.

2008 . by the physical layer  Semi-static part and dynamic part Transport Format Set – Transport Format Set (TFS) Semi-Static TTI Part Channel Coding  The set of transport formats CRC Size associated to a transport channel Rate Matching  Enables variable data rates Dynamic TB Size … TB Size Part TB Set Size … TB Set Size (multiple parameter sets) TF Indicator TFI 1 … TFI n TTI = Transmission Time Interval CRC = Cyclic Redundancy Check TB = Transport Block 9 © Nokia Siemens Networks Seminaariesitelmä / Jukka Valtanen / 08.Transport Formats in UMTS Radio Network Controller’s Software Implementation • Transport formats (2/3) – Transport Format (TF)  Defines the characteristics of a transport channel  Specifies the physical layer processing to be applied to the channel  Controls how much data is transferred during one TTI and how the data is coded etc.01.

2008 .Transport Formats in UMTS Radio Network Controller’s Software Implementation • Transport formats (3/3) – Transport Format Combination Set (TFCS)  Several transport channels can be multiplexed together  The set of transport format combinations of currently valid transport formats Transport channel 1 Transport channel 2 Transport channel 1 Transport channel 2 Transport block and Transport block and Transport block Transport block error indication error indication Transport block and Transport block and TFI Transport block TFI Transport block TFI TFI error indication error indication Higher layers Physical layer TFCI TFCI Coding and multiplexing Decoding and demultiplexing decoding Physical Physical Physical Physical control channel data channel control channel data channel TRANSMITTER RECEIVER TFI = Transport Format Indicator TFCI = Transport Format Combination Indicator 10 © Nokia Siemens Networks Seminaariesitelmä / Jukka Valtanen / 08.01.

2008 . service blocks and program blocks – One particular program block was investigated in Radio Resource Management (RRM) area  Completely new program block.Transport Formats in UMTS Radio Network Controller’s Software Implementation • Transport format implementation in the RNC (1/3) – The RNC consists of several different hardware and software layers  System blocks.01. a result of a major architectural change  Responsible for RRM related tasks and Layer 3 signalling inside the RNC  Interfaces to a couple of other program blocks and RNC’s internal database  Performs TFS and TFCS calculation for one Radio Resource Control (RRC) connection • RRC connection setup • State transition from Cell_FACH to Cell_DCH • RAB establishment / modification / release • SRNC relocation • Compressed mode activation / deactivation RAB = Radio Access Bearer SRNC = Serving Radio Network Controller 11 © Nokia Siemens Networks Seminaariesitelmä / Jukka Valtanen / 08.

331)  UE-capability is taken into account and it may also set limitations to TFCS  Generally more complex than TFS calculation DCH = Dedicated Channel HSDPA = High Speed Downlink Packet Access HSUPA = High Speed Uplink Packet Access 12 © Nokia Siemens Networks Seminaariesitelmä / Jukka Valtanen / 08.2008 .01.Transport Formats in UMTS Radio Network Controller’s Software Implementation • Transport format implementation in the RNC (2/3) – TFS calculation is performed in one code module (Module 6)  For each DCH separately. both uplink and downlink direction  Based on DCH type and maximum bit rates  HSDPA and HSUPA not considered here (TF calculation in the Node B)  Maximum of 8 simultaneous DCHs  Own internal procedures for calculating the different parts of the TFS – TFCS calculation is performed in another code module (Module 7)  Calculation is based on current DCH list and their TFS parameters  Calculated Transport Format Combination (CTFC) is a tool for efficient signalling of transport format combinations (3GPP TS 25.

2008 . problems with information hiding – Now the code was fully inspected and improved – Lots of commentary lines were added.Transport Formats in UMTS Radio Network Controller’s Software Implementation • Transport format implementation in the RNC (3/3) – The implementation has been ported from the old architectural solution.01. code optimisation was done and obsolete code was removed – also minor bugs were corrected – The implementation still deploys global data structures and clumsy data conversions that could (and should) be improved – More profound changes and a complete re-design are still possible – The software is under constant state of change – code maintainability and proper testing is important 13 © Nokia Siemens Networks Seminaariesitelmä / Jukka Valtanen / 08. dates back to year 2002 and 2003 – Originally 3500 code lines in Module 6 and 4000 code lines in Module 7 – Deploys global data structures.

Transport Formats in UMTS Radio Network Controller’s Software Implementation • Testing of transport formats in RNC software (1/2) – The product and all program blocks are tested in separate phases  Module testing (the focus in the thesis) • integrated part of design and implementation • new functionalities should be verified as soon as possible • regression testing after major corrections or other changes in later phases • should be thorough (code coverage).2008 .01. based on inputs and outputs  White box testing: system state can be observed. repeatable. more complicated  Hybrid test strategies 14 © Nokia Siemens Networks Seminaariesitelmä / Jukka Valtanen / 08. well maintainable and automatic  Integration and load testing  Functional testing  System testing – Testing methods  Black box testing: no insight into the code itself.

01.Transport Formats in UMTS Radio Network Controller’s Software Implementation • Testing of transport formats in RNC software (2/2) – Windows workstation + RNC software emulator + definition database – 47 initial test cases were prepared for TFS and TFCS features  mainly different kind of RAB setup scenarios  other TFS/TFCS calculation scenarios use the same procedures  inputs sent to the program block  calculation  output data verified – Test cases were inspected and analysed for code coverage properties – During the thesis work. a need for some changes was discovered  10 test cases updated  6 totally new test cases designed  all 53 test cases finally passed.2008 . no bugs found in later testing phases – Designed test case set will remain as an essential part of normal regression testing of the program block 15 © Nokia Siemens Networks Seminaariesitelmä / Jukka Valtanen / 08.

01. but manufacturer specific implementations enable efficient usage of radio resources – The program code of a program block in RRM area was inspected and analysed – Code maintainability was improved and minor bugs were corrected – Testing of TFS and TFCS functionalities was carried out.Transport Formats in UMTS Radio Network Controller’s Software Implementation • Discussion and conclusion (1/1) – Transport formats are applied in the data exchange between the physical layer and the data link layer – Transport formats enable variable bit rates and multiplexing of services – The theory is largely based on 3GPP specifications. a test case set was designed and the related code was found to be fully functional – Used testing methods were considered to be applicable – The observed features are now fully tested in module level testing – The obtained results will act as a reference for any future improvements 16 © Nokia Siemens Networks Seminaariesitelmä / Jukka Valtanen / 08.2008 .

01.Transport Formats in UMTS Radio Network Controller’s Software Implementation Thank you! 17 © Nokia Siemens Networks Seminaariesitelmä / Jukka Valtanen / 08.2008 .