Optimal Channel Estimation for Capacity Maximization in OFDM Systems

Wei Wu , Vikrant V. Gunna Srinivasan, Chien-fang Hsu, Youngok Kim, Chulhan Lee

OUTLINE 
     

Introduction System Description Channel Model Channel Estimation Transmission Capacity Optimization Simulation Results Conclusion

Dynamic Channel estimation and Prediction 2.Adaptive transmission over each sub-carrier . Channel Estimation Method . Maximizing Capacity of OFDM system .Frequency Domain Pilot Interpolation y Comb type y Block type .Water-filling Power allocation .Introduction 1.

Computer and Technical Services: Introduction Comb Type Block Type .

System Description .

3G mobile . Stanford University Interim (SUI) (Type 1~6) .Doppler shift: 100 to 200 Hz With Rayleigh Fading Assumption .Different RMS delay and Doppler shift 3.Typical RMS delay spread: 60 to 100 ns 2. Indoor .Wireless MAN and WAN .Channel Models  Type 1.Vehicular .

Jake s Model. example Sampling frequency = 8 MHz Time duration = 1 second Doppler shift = 50 Hz .Channel Models  Rayleigh Fading Approximation .

Channel Models .

Channel Models First-Order Markov Channel .H m ! FH m 1  N 2 . the smaller Var(N) .ar ( ) ! (1  F 2 )W H where ß : forgetting factor (correlation coefficient) N : Zero Mean Gaussian Noise .ß : a value between 0 and 1 the bigger ß.Channel varies slowly in time Ö Ö .

. k ! 0.m  Vk .m k .m . m ! H k .. N  1 Rk .1. m X k .. m ! H k . k ! 0.. m  Sk .1..m S ! k .Channel Estimation Yk ..m . N  1 X k .m : AWGN Y V .m k .m k . m : Channel gain Vk..m 0 « 1 h ! h  IFFT ¬ ¬ Ix ­ » S¼ ¼ ½ where : Transmitted data k .m Yk . ! k .m e j’   k. m . m : Received data H k ..

Channel Estimation (Pilot) MMSE ®0 ± E ¯ h h ± ° where 2 2 ¾ NW s2 ¨ F opt 1  F opt ± © L  ¿! ©1 F 2 s 1 F ± Ix ª opt opt À ¸ ¹ ¹ º F opt Ls L s2 ! 1   Ls  . 2 4 tr _ w a x R I Ls ! NW s2 Algorithm rm ! I 0 0 ( Rm ) h m ! F opt h m 1  (1  F opt ) rm .

n 2 Ö Ö Ö VH (lf p  nfs ) ! min E[ H (lf p  nfs )  an H (lf p )  bn H ((l  1) f p )] an .Channel Estimation (Sub-carriers)  Channel Gain Interpolation in Frequency domain Optimal linear interpolation Ö Ö Ö H (lf p  nfs ) ! an H (lf p )  bn H ((l 1) f p )  nl .bn R where fp : the frequency difference between pilot tones fs : the frequency difference between sub-carriers Obtain the channel gain matrix and its variance V at the time instant pilot tones are transmitted .

Capacity Optimization  Challenges    Time-varying channel Estimation & interpolation errors How pilot tone pattern impact capacity Consider the capacity and outage probability How channel estimation affect capacity    Idea:   Under-estimation: less capacity Over-estimation: unrecoverable errors .

t N i !1 Pi H i . e. maximize the capacity N max § Pr( H i . H i .g.t ) f s log 2 (1  Pi . Newton-Rapson method .t " H i .t N0 fs ) §P e P i i !1 max   tradeoff between the throughput and outage probability Solution can be done by traditional optimization method. H.Capacity Optimization  Problem formulation  Choose P.

but also the variance of the gain play important roles in water filling Example .t Hints: not only the estimated channel gain.t )   N0 fs Pi ! max(  .Theoretic Results  Power allocation  Weighted water filling: each by the transmission success probability Pr( H i .0) P ln 2 H i .t " H i .

Theoretic Results  The same channel gain (H=1) for 10 users with different estimation errors (0.1) high estimation error results in low power allocation (Pmax=1W) .01-0.

Parameters      # Symbols # Subcarriers Pilot Pattern in m subcarriers Total Power is predetermined Change the Pilot Period .

Simulation .

Simulation Optimal Capacity determination 90 80 70 C 60 50 40 30 0 20 40 60 Pilot Period 80 100 120 .

Contributions      Implementation of various wireless channels by Jake s model Implementation of MMSE channel estimation algorithm Proposed Optimal linear interpolation algorithm Develop the method to maximize Capacity for wireless systems with channel uncertainty Implementation of the whole OFDM system simulation blocks .