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ENGLISH III

COURSE DESCRIPTION
This course will be discussed about TOEFL preparation in which focusing on
reading comprehension and Grammar.
Composition of the course
1. Reference words
2. Scanning and Skimming ( e-learning)
3. Looking for Specific Information
4. Gueesing Word Meaning
5. Finding Specific Information
6. Identifying Information
7. Finding the Main Idea
8. Predicting the Continuation of the Paragraph
9. Making Inference
10. Identifying the Author Purpose
11. Simple and Compound Sentence
12. Clause I
13. Clause II
14. Reduce Clause
REFERENCE WORD

This section explains the system used to refer


forward or backward from where you are in a
text to other words or concepts. You use
reference words to show the connections
between ideas, giving greater cohesion and
clarity to your writing.
REFERENCE WORD

You will already be familiar with the word


‘reference’, meaning conventions for
acknowledging authors or documents you
have used in your research and reading. You
‘reference’ these authors when you quote
them or paraphrase them.
REFERENCE WORD

However, the term reference is also used to


refer to a system of creating cohesion in a
text. Reference words point backwards or
forwards to other words or concepts that
have already appeared in the text or are
about to appear in the text.
In the majority of cases, the word has already occurred
in the text i.e. the reference word is pointing backwards.
Example

In this sentence, these is a reference word pointing


back to phases in the preceding sentence.
CATEGORIES OF REFERENCE WORDS
1. Personal pronouns

2. Possessive pronouns

3. Demonstratives

4. Comparatives

5. The definite article ‘the’

6. General reference
Personal Pronouns Reference
The personal pronouns are I, you, she, he, it, we, they.
Because an impersonal style of writing is strongly
favoured by most academic disciplines, you may
rarely find yourself using pronouns like I, you and we.
The most commonly used personal pronouns in
academic writing are it (referring to things) and they
(referring to either things or people). In academic
writing, ‘things’ are usually phenomena and abstract
nouns, and people are usually previous researchers.
He and she may also be used, usually to refer to
authors previously mentioned in the text.
Example
Possessive pronouns Reference
The possessive pronouns show a relationship of
ownership or ‘belonging to’. They are: my, mine,
your, yours, his, her, hers, its, our, ours, their, theirs.
As with personal pronouns, my and our are not
commonly used in academic writing. The most
commonly used possessive pronouns in academic
writing are its, their, his, her.
Example
Demonstratives Reference
Demonstratives are similar to personal and
possessive pronouns in that they refer to
nouns usually already present in the text.
However, they have a stronger pointing
quality – they identify (point at) exactly which
thing or things are being referred to.

The most common demonstratives are: this,


that (singular), these, those (plural), such.
Example
Comparatives Reference

Comparatives are sometimes used as


pronouns and sometimes as adjectives.
You do not need to be able to distinguish
the two because, in both cases, they are
being used to refer to something or
someone in the text.
Comparatives include words like: another,
other, both, similar, the same, better,
more, earlier, later, previous, subsequent.
Example
The definite article ‘the’ Reference
The definite article the is often used to refer back
to something which has already been mentioned
in the text and is now occurring for the second
(or perhaps the third or fourth) time.
Example
The definite article can also be used to point
(refer) forwards, although this is less common.
Note that the definite article is not always used
referentially.

Example
General Reference
Usually a reference word is tied to a word, phrase
or other grammatical element which is clearly
identifiable in the preceding or subsequent text.
However, sometimes a reference word refers back
to an entire stretch of text – perhaps even a
paragraph or two - without referring to any one
particular component of it. In this case, the
reference word has the function of summarising the
preceding information.
The words most commonly used to do this are the
demonstrative pronouns this and these.
Example
Look at the reference word in each of these
sentences. What type of reference word is it?
Identify the word or phrase it is referring to.
Then, check your understanding by clicking
on the highlighted reference word.
Example
Read the passage and answer the questions!

In the past years, the business of clothes has grown well. It


is interesting and gives much profit; over US$ 200 million
is spent annually on the design and color. They must look
beautiful so that the customers are attracted. Manufactur-
ers pay a lot for the celebrities for wearing their brands of
clothes. Tom Cruise, for example, is rumored to have
signed a three-year contract for US$ 5 million with one
famous brand.
He has to wear the product when he is interviewed by TV
stations. Roger Federer is a tennis player. He is paid a lot
for the brand ambassador of Hammer. Ronaldo gets a lot of
money because he is the model of Nike. Messi becomes a
rich man because he wears Adidas while playing Football.
The word it in line 1 refers to ...
a. profit
b. design
c. color
d. the business

The pronoun they in line 3 refers to ...


a. customers
b. design and color
c. celebrities
d. manufacturers
The word their in line 5 refers to ...
a. celebrities
b. clothes
c. manufacturers
d. TV stations

The pronoun he in line 9 refers to ...


a. Ronaldo
b. Roger Federer
c. Tom Cruise
d. Lionel Messi
London, a city in Southeast England, is the capital of the
United Kingdom. It becomes the political center of the
Commonwealth of Nations. London, one of the largest cities
in the world, has Thames, the famous river. It flows in some
parts of the city. Unfortunately, sewage and industrial waste
have contaminated it. The waters of Thames have also been
influenced by them. After the government has taken an
action to clean the river, fish are reported to have returned
to parts of the river from which they have long been absent.
Londoners have taken unusual pleasures in urban open
spaces and in green areas. Those are nice places to sit in the
afternoon after work. The houses and buildings stand
around the nice environment and line along the streets.
They are usually well-built of bricks or stones. A few streets
are wide enough to permit the easy circulation of traffics.
The word it in line 2 refers to ...
a. England
b. London
c. United Kingdom
d. Commonwealth

The pronoun it in line 4 refers to ...


a. capital
b. city
c. Thames
d. London
The word them in line 7 refers to ...
a. Nations
b. sewage and industrial waste
c. parts
d. Londoners

The word which in line 14 refers to ...


a. sewage
b. River
c. Waste
d. fish
The word they in line 9 refers to ...
a. houses
b. buildings
c. fish
d. areas

The word those in line 11 refers to ...


a. urban open spaces and green areas
b. streets
c. bricks
d. stones
The word they in line 14 refers to ...
a. streets
b. houses and buildings
c. traffics
d. stones
Some scientists believe that Chimpanzees are the cleverest
animal after men. They make medical and behavioral
researches about these highly intelligent social animals. They
are native to the dense forests and open woodlands of West
and Central equatorial Africa. They are large, powerfully built
animals that stand about 4.5 feet (1.3 meters) high and weigh
an average of I 15 pounds (52 kg). Chimpanzee's food is
varied, but most of it is vegetable material. If there are
insects, such as Termites, Ants, and Caterpillars, they also like
to eat huge numbers of them.
The Chimpanzees have long arms. They are suited for swing-
ing through trees. Although most travels take place on the
ground, some individuals may take short distances on their
legs only, especially when the hands are being used to carry
an object. When excited, males often stand on their legs and
also put on an impressive display.
The word they in line 2 refers to ...
a. chimpanzees
b. scientists
c. animals
d. men

The word these in line 3 refers to ...


a. researches
b. Chimpanzees
c. animals
d. scientists

The word they in line 3 refers to ...


a. scientists
b. Africa
c. open woodlands
d. Chimpanzees
The word it in line 8 refers to
a. Chimpanzee's food
b. Chimpanzee's height
c. Chimpanzee's weight
d. material

The word them in line 10 refers to ...


a. insects
b. vegetables
c. forests
d. Chimpanzees
The word they in line 11 refers to ...
a. Chimpanzees
b. arms
c. trees
d. ants

The word their legs in line 13 refers to the legs of. ..


a. male Chimpanzees
b. female Chimpanzees
c. Chimpanzee's hands
d. Chimpanzee's arms
Many people like playing Baseball, but the origin started in
1
1838. Doubleday Abner introduced a diamond-shaped field
in New York. Two years later, to make the game well-known,
he attempted to standardize the rules of the game as they
are not easy to make at the first time.
5
Later, Abner made a promotion and advertisement with his
peers. Five years after he introduced the game, the interest
in the game had grown significantly. Over 300 teams existed,
some of which toured the country playing the game. Some
of these teams were mateurs, while the other ones Were
10 professionals. little by little, it offered opportunities for
profit. Soon, more professional teams appeared and Were
organized by the government. The competition among them
was intense, and in 1895, the first world series contest Was
14
held. I! was really successful.
Where in the passage does the writer mention when
the origin of the game started?
a. line I
b. line 2
c. line 4
d. line 9

Where in the passage does the author mention who


introduced the game and where it was started?
a. lines 1-3
b. lines 2-4
c. lines 9-1 I
d. lines 11-13
Where in the passage does the author mention what
Abner did to make the game popular?
a. lines 2-4
b. lines 5-7
c. lines 13-15
d. lines 15-17

The word they in line 7 refers to ...


a. peers
b. rules
c. people
d. teams
Where in the passage does the author mention who
helped Abner make a promotion?
a. line 10
b. line 11
c. line 14
d. line 15

Where in the passage does the author mention the


number of teams existed?
a. line 11
b. Line 13
c. Line 15
d. Line 17
1 During the Dinosaurian era, the days were short. The Sun
was not as hot as it is today. On Earth, there was only one
big continent, and one big ocean. The name of the
continent was Pangea (all lands), and the name of the
5 ocean was Panthallassa (all seas).
There were many kinds of Dinosaurs, some of which
were gigantic. Some Dinosaurs ate leaves, while some
others ate meat. Some Dinosaurs could fly.
What happened to Dinosaurs? They became extinct
10 because there was such a large comet hitting the Earth.
The comet caused fire, and it killed the trees. Dinosaurs
could not feed because there were no trees on Earth.
Eventually, they couldn't bear the situation. All of them
14 died, and they became extinct.
The word it in line 2 refers to ...
a. type
b. Richard Owen
c. the word Dinosaur
d. Lizard

Where in the passage does the author mention the


creator of the name Dinosaur?
a. Line 2
b. Line 4
c. line 6
d. Line 8
Where in the passage does the author mention the
length Dinosaurs lived on Earth?
a. Line 8
b. Line 10
c. Line 12
d. Line 14
The word which in line 6 refers to ...
a. lands
b. kinds of Dinosaurs
c. leaves
d. days
Where in the passage does author mention the food
Dinosaurs?
a. Lines 7-8
b. Lines 10-14
c. Lines 15-16
d. Lines 17-18

Where in the passage does the author mention the


origin of the names of the continent and the ocean?
a. Lines 1- 2
b. Lines 4 - 5
c. Lines 8-10
d. Lines 11-12
The word it in line 11 refers to ...
a. the day
b. the Sun
c. the continent
d. the ocean