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Gastrointestinal function

secretion, regulation

Daniel Hodyc
Department of Physiology

Pictures and schemes – L. R. Johnson – Essential Medical Physiology, Elsevier, 2003

GIT secretion

1. Salivary secretion

2. Gastric secretion

3. Pancreatic secretion

Salivary

secretion

Anatomy. Inervation .

increases the sensitivity of taste buds .ptyalin (α-amylase) .cleaves α-1.lower acidic optimum – remains active throughout the stomach and into the proximal duodenum .4-glycosidic bonds of carbohydrates .75 % of starch. Functions of saliva Digestion .lingual lipase .dissolves dietary constituents .triglycerides .identical to pancreatic amylase . pH optimum 7 .functionally replaceable by pancreatic enzyme .

mucus content . Functions of saliva Lubrication .facilitates swallowing .concentration . dilution and buffering of harmful substances . salivation before vomiting .necessary for speech Protection . lysozym. IgA binding protein. take-up of Ca and phosphate . lactoferin . xerostomia chronic infections .

specialized organic materials .high potassium concentration .two stages in secretion acini x salivary duct .relatively large volume .low osmolarity . Composition of saliva Major characteristics of saliva: .

Composition of saliva .

Composition of saliva .

lactoferin kallikrein α-globulin bradykinin vasodilation .ptyalin. IgA binding protein.lysozym. lipase . Composition of saliva Organic composition: .

Neural regulation of secretion .

Gastric secretion .

lubricant .replaceable by pancreatic enzymes . absorption in the ileum .conversion of pepsinogen to pepsine .protein digestion .intrinsic factor .protective coating.mucus . Gastric secretion Gastric juice .bacteriostatic effect .hydrochloric acid .binds B12 vitamin.part of gastric mucosal barrier .the only indispensable substance in gastric juice .pepsin .

Gastric secretion Oxyntic gland Secretory regions .

Gastric juice electrolytes .

Hydrochloric acid secretion alkaline tide .

Stimulation of acid secretion Potentiation of agents Parasympathetics (Ach) Gastrin Histamine .

Hydrochloric acid secretion – perietal cell Nonsecreting cell Secreting cell .

Stimulation of acid secretion – cephalic phase  blocked by vagotomy  sham feeding  hypoglycemia  role of GRP (bombesin) .

Gastric phase  60 % of acid response  distension  peptides  calcium alcohol caffeine .

Stimulation of gastric acid secretion .

Regulation of gastrin release Acetylcholine - Somatostatin Gastrin Cell Cell .

hyperosmotic chyme acid secretion fatty acids . Intragastric pH after a meal Stomach – somatostatin Inhibition of Duodenum – secretin.

Production of Pepsin Pepsinogen Ach H+ Pepsin .

Pancreatic secretion .

Secretion of water and electrolytes  Na. K – the same as in plasma  Bicarbonate concentration – up to 5 times higher than in plasma .

concentration  Carbonic anhydrase .Mechanism of water and electrolytes secretion  Na-K-ATPase  Bicarbonate in plasma  High extracellular Cl.

Mechanism of enzymes secretion Proteolytic enzymes – secreted as inactive precursors chymotrypsinogen prokarboxypeptidase enterokinase trypsinogen trypsin chymotrypsin karboxypeptidase .

Mechanism of enzymes secretion Inhibition of pancreatic autodigestion chymotrypsinogen prokarboxypeptidase enterokinase trypsinogen trypsin Trypsin inhibitor chymotrypsin karboxypeptidase .

Mechanism of enzymes secretion Inhibition of pancreatic autodigestion chymotrypsinogen prokarboxypeptidase enterokinase trypsinogen trypsin Trypsin inhibitor chymotrypsin karboxypeptidase Failure PANCREATITIS .

glycerol + fatty acids .cleaves starch and glycogen into di.pancreatic lipase .and trisacharides Lypolytic enzymes .pancreatic α-amylase . Mechanism of enzymes secretion Glycolytic enzymes .secreted as active enzymes .secreted as active enzymes .

Regulation of pancreatic secretion Cephalic and gastric phase Acetylcholine CCK enzymes Secretin water bicarbonate .

Regulation of pancreatic secretion Intestinal phase Acetylcholine CCK Fat enzymes H+ Secretin water bicarbonate .

pancreatic bicarbonate changes in diet changes in enzyme secretion . Response to a meal neutralization .

The effect of potentiation of enzyme secretion in pancreas Phenylalanin + Secretin (CCK) Secretin 1unit / kg.hr Phenylalanin (CCK) .