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Chapter 2

Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches

PowerPoint slides by Ronald J. Shope in collaboration with John W. Creswell

Key Ideas Definition of quantitative and qualitative Research Development of quantitative research Development of qualitative research Differences between quantitative and qualitative in the process of research Design procedures within your approach Use of quantitative or qualitative approach Educational Research 2e: Creswell .

participants. general questions.Definitions of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Quantitative Research Qualitative Research A type of educational A type of educational research in research in which the which the researcher relies on researcher decides what to the views of participants. analyzes these describes and analyzes these numbers using statistics. questions. asks specific. and words for themes. and conducts conducts the inquiry in an the inquiry in a subjective. biased unbiased. collects numeric collects data consisting largely of (numbered) data from words (or text) from participants. Educational Research 2e: Creswell . narrow broad. objective manner. asks study. manner.

The Development of Quantitative Research: Historical Trends Statistical Procedures Test and Measurement Practices Research Designs Educational Research 2e: Creswell .

Historical Trends: Quantitative Statistical Procedures Correlational procedures Comparing groups Cause/Effect relationships Educational Research 2e: Creswell .

SAT) Predicting achievement from standardized measurements Educational Research 2e: Creswell .g.Historical Trends: Quantitative Testing and Measurement Testing mental abilities (late 19th century) Measuring achievement (e.

g. Kerlinger 1964) Educational Research 2e: Creswell .Historical Trends: Quantitative Research Designs Educational Surveys (late 19th century) Simple Experiments (early 20th century) Multiple groups and tests (by 1935) Longitudinal designs Books on research design (e.

The Development of Qualitative Research: Major Themes Philosophical Ideas Procedural Developments Advocacy Practices Educational Research 2e: Creswell .

Historical Trends: Qualitative Philosophical Ideas Naturalistic Inquiry or Constructivism consider the participant’s point of view describe participant’s view within a setting or context This is an alternative perspective to traditional research Educational Research 2e: Creswell .

Historical Trends: Qualitative Procedural Developments Central Phenomenon rather than research question or hypothesis Methods such as interviews. observations and interviews Designs such as case studies. grounded theory and narrative Educational Research 2e: Creswell .

Historical Trends: Qualitative Advocacy Practices The qualitative researcher is not objective. politically neutral observer The qualitative researcher is an observer of the human condition The meaning of the research is plural. political and open The project is collaborative and participatory Educational Research 2e: Creswell .

emerging form Instruments Collecting Data •Text or image data •Numeric Data •Small Number •Large numbers •Text Analysis •Statistical Analyze and •Description and Themes •Description of Trends Interpret Data •Larger Meanings of Findings •Comparisons/Predictions •Flexibleand Emerging •Standard and Fixed Report and Evaluate •Reflexive and Biased •Objective and Unbiased Educational Research 2e: Creswell . Characteristics of Quantitative and Qualitative Research in the Process of Research Quantitative Steps in the Qualitative Characteristics Research Process Characteristics •Descriptive/Explanatory •Exploratory/ Identifying a Problem Understanding •Major Role a Central Phenomena •Justify Problem •Minor Role Reviewing the Literature •Justify Problem •Specific and Narrow •General and Broad •Measurable/Observable Specifying a Purpose •Participants’ Experience •Pre-determined •General.

Ways in Which Quantitative and Qualitative Research are Similar • They both follow the steps in the process of research • Format for reporting the research problem is the same • Both have data collection steps Educational Research 2e: Creswell .

How Procedures or Research Designs Relate to Quantitative and Qualitative Research and Steps in the Process of Research Steps in the Research Process Two Approaches Research Designs Quantitative Identifying a Problem Qualitative Quantitative Reviewing the Literature Qualitative •Experimental Quantitative •Correlational Specifying a Purpose Qualitative •Survey Quantitative Collecting Data Qualitative •Mixed •Action Quantitative Analyze and Interpret Data Qualitative •Ethnography Quantitative •Grounded Report and Evaluate Qualitative Theory •Narrative Educational Research 2e: Creswell .

Quantitative Designs and Uses Intervention Non-Intervention Research Research Explaining whether an Associating or intervention influences relating variables an outcome for one in a predictable Describing trends for group as opposed to pattern for one the population of another group group of people individuals Survey Experimental Correlational Research Research Research Educational Research 2e: Creswell .

Qualitative Designs and Uses Exploring common Exploring the shared Exploring individual experiences of culture of a people stories to describe individuals to group the lives of people develop a theory Ethnographic Grounded Theory Narrative Research Research Research Educational Research 2e: Creswell .

problems that they face in their setting Mixed Methods Action Research Research Educational Research 2e: Creswell . Combined Designs and Uses Combining quantitative and Using quantitative and qualitative data to best qualitative data for understand and explain a individuals to study research problem.

How Do You Choose Whether to Use the Quantitative or Qualitative Approach? • Match the approach to the problem • Fit the approach to your audience • Relate the approach to your experiences Educational Research 2e: Creswell .