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MODULE 12 Introduction to Industrial Hygiene

MODULE 12

MODULE 12 Introduction to Industrial Hygiene

Introduction to Industrial Hygiene

What is Industrial Hygiene? Industrial hygiene is the science of anticipating, recognizing, evaluating, and controlling workplace

What is Industrial Hygiene?

Industrial hygiene is the science of anticipating, recognizing, evaluating, and controlling workplace conditions

that may cause workers' injury or illness.

  • Key factors:

    • Employee exposure to hazards

    • Control for hazards to protect workers

Steps to Protect Employees  Anticipate potential hazards  Recognize potential hazards  Evaluate exposure and

Steps to Protect Employees

  • Anticipate potential hazards

  • Recognize potential hazards

  • Evaluate exposure and risk

  • Control exposure and risk

  • (Not just for health hazards)

Hierarchy of Controls 1. Engineering controls: Remove hazard  Process change, Chemical substitution  Ventilation, Shielding,

Hierarchy of Controls

  • 1. Engineering controls: Remove hazard

    • Process change, Chemical substitution

    • Ventilation, Shielding, Guarding

    • Requires little or no employee action

  • 2. Administrative controls: Manage exposure

    • Worker rotation, Procedures, Training

    • Trench shoring, Controlled access areas

    • Requires employee action

Hierarchy of Controls 3. Personal protective equipment (PPE)  Respirators, Gloves, Boots, Clothing  Fall protection

Hierarchy of Controls

  • 3. Personal protective equipment (PPE)

    • Respirators, Gloves, Boots, Clothing

    • Fall protection equipment, Hard hats

    • Requires individual employee action

    • Last line of defense, behind engineering and administrative controls

    • Addressed in 29 CFR 1910 Subpart I

Chemical exposures in oil and gas operations  What chemicals are used in oil and gas

Chemical exposures in oil and

gas operations

  • What chemicals are used in oil and gas operations?

  • How can employees be exposed?

  • What toxic effects do these chemicals have?

  • How can employees be protected from

these effects?

29 CFR Subpart Z Toxic and Hazardous Substances
29 CFR Subpart Z Toxic and Hazardous Substances

29 CFR Subpart Z

29 CFR Subpart Z Toxic and Hazardous Substances

Toxic and Hazardous Substances

29 CFR Subpart Z  1910.1000 Air Contaminants:  Includes Z tables: worker exposure limits for

29 CFR Subpart Z

  • 1910.1000 Air Contaminants:

    • Includes Z tables: worker exposure limits for specific listed substances

    • Employee exposure cannot exceed limits

    • Tables Z-1, Z-2, Z-3 each have their own requirements

  • PEL = Permissible Exposure Limit

  • 29 CFR Subpart Z  1910.1001-1096:  Specific regulations for individual substances including:  asbestos (1910.1001);

    29 CFR Subpart Z

    • 1910.1001-1096:

      • Specific regulations for individual substances including:

        • asbestos (1910.1001);

        • lead (1910.1025);

        • bloodborne pathogens (1910.1030), and others

  • 1910.1200 Hazard Communication

  • 1910.1000(a) - Table Z-1  Derived from 1968 ACGIH TLVs  American Conference of Governmental Industrial

    1910.1000(a) - Table Z-1

    • Derived from 1968 ACGIH TLVs

      • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists

      • Threshold Limit Values

      • community CHECK

    Levels thought to cause no significant

    adverse health effects in the majority of the

    1910.1000(a) - Table Z-1  Lists common workplace chemicals  Two types of limits:  8-hour

    1910.1000(a) - Table Z-1

    • Lists common workplace chemicals

    • Two types of limits:

      • 8-hour Time Weighted Average (TWA) or

      • Ceiling (C) limits

  • Employee exposure shall at no time

  • exceed a ceiling (C) exposure limit

    1910.1000(a) - Table Z-1  8-hour Time Weighted Averages (TWA)  Employee exposure shall not exceed

    1910.1000(a) - Table Z-1

    • 8-hour Time Weighted Averages (TWA)

      • Employee exposure shall not exceed 8- hour TWA in any 8-hour work shift of a 40- hour work week

      • Calculations illustrated in (d)

  • Units:

    • Parts per million (ppm)

    • Milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m 3 )

  • Table Z-1 Examples

    Table Z-1 Examples Substance 8-hr TWA Ceiling Acetone 1000 ppm Carbon monoxide 50 ppm Chlorine 1
    Substance 8-hr TWA Ceiling Acetone 1000 ppm Carbon monoxide 50 ppm Chlorine 1 ppm Particulates not
    Substance
    8-hr TWA
    Ceiling
    Acetone
    1000 ppm
    Carbon monoxide
    50 ppm
    Chlorine
    1 ppm
    Particulates not
    FOR EXAMPLE…
    15 mg/M 3 ,
    otherwise regulated
    Subtitles & Transitions
    Total dust
    (PNOR)
    5 mg/M 3 ,
    Respirable
    fraction
    1910.1000(b) - Table Z-2  Adopted from ANSI standards (American National Standards Institute)  Expanded standards

    1910.1000(b) - Table Z-2

    • Adopted from ANSI standards (American National Standards Institute)

    • Expanded standards developed for

    some of the substances found in Z-2,

    including:

    • Benzene 1910.1028

    • Cadmium 1910.1027

    • Formaldehyde 1910.1048

    • Methylene chloride 1910.1052

    1910.1000(b) - Table Z-2  Table Z-2 expresses exposure limits as:  8-hour TWA  Ceiling

    1910.1000(b) - Table Z-2

    • Table Z-2 expresses exposure limits as:

      • 8-hour TWA

      • Ceiling

      • Peak

  • If a substance has both ceiling and peak limits: peak = level never to be exceeded

  • Exposure levels over the ceiling but under the peak must comply with margin notes in table

  • TWA must still not be exceeded

  • 1910.1000(b) - Table Z-2 Examples Substance 8-hr Ceiling Peak Notes TWA Benzene 10 ppm 25 ppm

    1910.1000(b) - Table Z-2

    Examples

    Substance

    8-hr

    Ceiling

    Peak

    Notes

    TWA

    Benzene

    10 ppm

    • 25 ppm

    • 50 ppm

    • 10 min

    Hydrogen

     
    • 20 ppm

    • 50 ppm

    • 10 min

    sulfide

    Styrene

    100 ppm

    • 200 ppm

    • 600 ppm

    5 min in

    any 3 hrs

    Toluene

    200 ppm

    • 300 ppm

    • 500 ppm

    • 10 min

    1910.1000(c) - Table Z-3  8-hour TWA limits for forms of silica  Adopted from ACGIH

    1910.1000(c) - Table Z-3

    • 8-hour TWA limits for forms of silica

      • Adopted from ACGIH TLVs

    • SiO 2 : basic component of sand, granite

    • Quartz: 2 nd most common mineral

    • Quartz sand (crystalline silica) used to fracture rock formations in wells

    • Silica in barite, lignite, and bentonite mud additives

    Health Effects of Silica  Silicosis  Irreversible but preventable  Most commonly associated with silica

    Health Effects of Silica

    • Silicosis

      • Irreversible but preventable

      • Most commonly associated with silica dust

  • Other possible effects:

    • Lung cancer

    • Some auto-immune diseases

  • Health Effects of Silica  Silicosis  Irreversible but preventable  Most commonly associated with silica
    • 18 (Scanning electron micrograph by William Jones, Ph.D., compliments of OSHA)

    ©2006 TEEX

    1910.1000(c) - Table Z-3 Substance PEL Crystalline Silica (Respirable fraction) 10mg/m 3 % Sio2 + 2

    1910.1000(c) - Table Z-3

     

    Substance

    PEL

     

    Crystalline Silica (Respirable fraction)

    10mg/m 3 % Sio2 + 2

    Amorphous

    30mg/m 3 % Sio2

    Nuisance dust

    15 mg/m 3

    19

    Respirable dust

    5 mg/m 3

    ©2006 TEEX

    1910.1000(d) – Computation formulae  Time Weighted Average  E = (C  T + CInterpretation – Foulke letter, 1997 20 ©2006 TEEX " id="pdf-obj-19-2" src="pdf-obj-19-2.jpg">

    1910.1000(d) Computation formulae

    • Time Weighted Average

      • E = (C 1 T 1 + C 2 T 2 + …)/total time

      • Total time used = 8 hours

      • Example in § 1910.1000(d)(1)(ii)

      • What about different work schedules?

        • Varies by chemical

        • Most chemicals: Worst 8 hours of shift

        • Lead: adjusted by hours worked

        • Interpretation Foulke letter, 1997

    1910.1000(d) – Computation formulae  Exposure to Chemical Mixtures  E = (C /L ) +

    1910.1000(d) Computation formulae

    • Exposure to Chemical Mixtures

      • E m = (C 1 /L 1 ) + (C 2 /L 2 ) + … + (C n /L n )

      • If E m > 1, employee is overexposed

  • Assumptions:

    • Chemicals’ effects are additive

    • Dose is proportional to C T

  • 1910.1000(e) – To achieve compliance  Administrative or engineering controls first wherever feasible  When those

    1910.1000(e) To achieve compliance

    • Administrative or engineering controls first wherever feasible

    • When those are not feasible for full compliance: protective equipment or other protective measures

    • Equipment or technical measures must be approved by competent industrial hygienist or qualified person

    • Respirators: 1910.134

    Chemical-Specific Standards  1910.1001 Asbestos  1910.1018 Inorganic Arsenic  1910.1025 Lead  1910.1026 Chromium (VI)

    Chemical-Specific Standards

    • 1910.1001 Asbestos

    • 1910.1018 Inorganic Arsenic

    • 1910.1025 Lead

    • 1910.1026 Chromium (VI) (revised 2006)

    • 1910.1027 Cadmium

    • 1910.1028 Benzene

      • Oil and gas drilling, production, servicing exempt

    • 1910.1029 Formaldehyde

    1910.1020 Access to employee exposure and medical records  Employees, representatives, and OSHA have right of

    1910.1020 Access to employee

    exposure and medical records

    • Employees, representatives, and OSHA have right of access

    • Preserved for 30 years, with exceptions

    • Employee consent for medical records

    • OSHA access order posted if identifiable

    • Trade secrets

    • Employee information

    1910.1030 Bloodborne Pathogens  Occupational exposure:  Reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact

    1910.1030 Bloodborne

    Pathogens

    • Occupational exposure:

      • Reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact

      • With blood or other potentially infectious materials (OPIM) e.g. certain body fluids, tissues

    1910.1096 Ionizing radiation  OSHA standards cover NORM and TENORM  Exposures must be kept within

    1910.1096 Ionizing radiation

    • OSHA standards cover NORM and TENORM

    • Exposures must be kept within limits even if sources are natural

    1910.1201 Retention of DOT markings, placards and labels  Retain markings on packages received until clean

    1910.1201 Retention of DOT

    markings, placards and labels

    • Retain markings on packages received until clean enough to remove hazard

    • Freight container or vehicle retains placards until materials removed enough

    • Readily visible

    • Non-bulk packages not to be reshipped: Hazard Communication labels OK

    1910.1450 Hazardous chemicals in laboratories  For laboratory use only  Supersedes other standards in Subpart

    1910.1450 Hazardous chemicals

    in laboratories

    • For laboratory use only

    • Supersedes other standards in Subpart Z except:

      • PELs

      • Prohibition of eye and skin contact

  • Exposure monitoring and medical

  • surveillance for those over action levels

    Other Standards and Protective Measures
    Other Standards and Protective Measures

    Other Standards and

    Other Standards and Protective Measures

    Protective Measures

    General Duty Clause  Recognized hazards may be cited  If there is no PEL: 

    General Duty Clause

    • Recognized hazards may be cited

    • If there is no PEL:

      • Consensus or proprietary standards

        • ANSI, ACGIH, AIHA

      • Industry Best Practices

      • Manufacturer Recommendations (MSDS)

    Biological Hazards  Potentially infectious material exposure  Contagious diseases e.g. influenza  Vector-borne diseases e.g.

    Biological Hazards

    • Potentially infectious material exposure

    • Contagious diseases e.g. influenza

    • Vector-borne diseases e.g. Malaria,

    Lyme disease

    • Fungi e.g. mold, spores

    • Toxins e.g. endotoxin

    • Allergens / sensitizers e.g. pollen, red cedar

    Physical and Radiological Hazards  Heat or cold (General Duty Clause)  Vibration (General Duty Clause)

    Physical and Radiological

    Hazards

    • Heat or cold (General Duty Clause)

    • Vibration (General Duty Clause)

    • Noise (1910 Subpart G)

    • Non-ionizing radiation (electromagnetic, light) (1910 Subpart G)

    • Ionizing radiation

    Other Standards  29 CFR 1926 Subpart D: Occupational Health and Environmental Controls  Construction operations

    Other Standards

    • 29 CFR 1926 Subpart D: Occupational Health and Environmental Controls

      • Construction operations only

    • API RP 54

      • Noise rules allow for 12 hour shifts

      • Handling drilling fluid chemicals and

    additives

    Protective Measures  How are exposures to health hazards evaluated on your site?  How are

    Protective Measures

    • How are exposures to health hazards evaluated on your site?

    • How are they controlled?