Advertising Appeals


Advertising Theory
In developing an advertisement for an advertising campaign, there are theoretical frameworks that can be useful, including: The Hierarchy of Effects Model A Means-Ends Theory Visual and Verbal Frameworks


Hierarchy of Effects
The Hierarchy of Effects model is helpful in clarifying the objectives of an advertising campaign as well as the objective of a particular advertisement. The model suggests that a consumer or a business buyer moves through a series of six steps when being convinced to make a purchase. They are: Awareness. Knowledge. Liking. Preference. Conviction. The actual purchase.


there are times when consumers may first make a purchase and then later develop knowledge.Although the Hierarchy of Effects model helps creatives to understand the impact of an advertisement on viewers. The major benefit of the Hierarchy of Effects model is that it is one method that can be used to identify the typical steps consumers and businesses take when making purchases. preference. and conviction. liking. 4 . For instance. some of its underlying principles have been questioned.

Consumer benefits. 5 . Leverage points. MECCAS model suggests five elements should be utilized in creating ads: The product¶s attributes. MECCAS stands for Means-Ends Conceptualization of Components for Advertising Strategy. The end states are various personal values consumers hold. Personal values.Means-Ends Theory A means leads the consumer to a desired end state. The executional framework. Means-Ends theory is the basis of a model called MECCAS.

are the tools creatives use to help the consumer make the transition from being aware of a product¶s benefits to incorporating it with his or her value system. as described in the upcoming pages. Creatives spend considerable amounts of time designing ads with powerful leverage points. 6 . Executional frameworks and various types of appeals. the creative must be able to build a pathway that connects a product benefit with the potential buyer¶s value system. To construct a quality leverage point.Leverage Points A leverage point is the feature of the ad that leads the viewer to transform the advertising message into a personal value.

where a visually biased ad would be processed using the peripheral route. In terms of the ELM (Elaboration Likelihood Model). Visual images: Often lead to more favorable attitudes toward both the advertisement and the brand Tend to be more easily remembered than verbal copy Are stored in the brain both as pictures and words 7 .Verbal and Visual Images A key decision made by the creative determines the degree of emphasis given to the visual elements of the ad versus the verbal elements. a verbal ad is supposed to take the central route (most direct and easily remembered) of information processing.

Advertising Appeals Fear Humor Sex Music Rational Emotions Scarcity 8 .

9 . speaks to their wants or need. or cause. Something that moves people. The underlying content of the advertisement ³movie script´. service.What is an Advertising Appeal? Refers to the approach used to attract the attention of consumers and/or to influence their feelings toward the product. and excites their interest.

Deciding on an Advertising Appeal Review Creative Brief (specifically objectives section) The nature of the product The preferences of the client (very important) Common sense and gut feeling 10 .

Most experts believe that a moderate level of fear is most effective. 11 . idea marketing.Fear Appeal Fear appeals are used because they work. When using fear. Increases viewer interest in the ad and the persuasiveness of the ad. Used with health and beauty products. insurance. Fear increases both the viewer¶s interest in an advertisement and the persuasiveness of that ad. Most advertisers believe a moderate level of fear will be the most effective. a key decision is how strong to make the appeal.

12 .Fear Appeal Print Ad Example This ad reminds people of the dangers of overexposure to the sun.

Humor Appeal Humor is effective in both getting attention and keeping it. remember In recall tests. Humor is used in about 30% of all advertisements. humorous ads are often the most remembered. which helps the ad cut through clutter. The success of humor as an advertising tactic is based on causing consumers to: Watch Laugh Most importantly. 13 .

the humor should be directly connected to the product¶s benefits. Unfortunately. 14 .Humor Appeal To be successful. Advertisers must be careful to avoid letting the humor overpower the advertisement. humorous ads can also backfire. When humor fails. it is usually because the joke in the ad is remembered but the product or brand is not.

Humor Appeal 15 .

Sex Appeal Subliminal techniques Nudity or partial nudity Sexual suggestiveness Overt sexuality Sensuality 16 .

Rated as being more interesting. Brand recall is lower.Are Sex Appeals Effective? Research Results Sex and nudity do increase attention. Often interferes with message comprehension 17 . Often leads to strong feelings about the advertisement.

The presence of an attractive model produces higher purchase intentions when the product is sexually relevant than if it was not sexually 18 . but not brand recognition.Factors to Consider When Using Decorative Models The presence of female (or male) decorative models improves ad recognition. The presence of a decorative model influences emotional and objective evaluations of the product among both males and female audiences.

Music can lead to a better recall of the visual and emotional aspects of an ad. including answers to these questions: What role will music play in the ad? Will a familiar song be used. Several decisions are made when selecting music for ads. Most consumers remember the song along with images of the product or company. or will something original be created? 19 How does the music fit with the message of the ad? . Musical memories are often stored in long-term recall areas of the brain.Music Appeals Music gains attention and increases the retention of visual information at the same time.

Popular songs are often costly and some musicians refuse to sell them. .Music can be: An incidental part or the primary theme of the ad Used to misdirect the audience so a surprise ending can appear An important decision involves the selection of a familiar tune versus creating original music for the ad. less-well-known 20 musicians to reduce costs. Some advertisers now look for new. Well-known songs have an advantage: Consumers already have developed an affinity for the song that they can transfer to the product.

Rational Appeals The ( ELM ) Elaboration Likelihood Model approach assumes consumers use rational thought processes when making purchase decisions. knowledge. and purchase. A rational appeal often follows the Hierarchy of Effects stages of awareness. liking. preference. To be successful. conviction. 21 . rational appeals rely on consumers actively processing the information presented in an advertisement.

Print media offers the best outlets for rational appeals. Complex products require more time 22 . Conventional advertising wisdom is that rational appeals are well suited for high involvement and complex products. because they give the readers a greater opportunity to process copy information. High involvement decisions require considerable cognitive activity and consumers spend more time evaluating the attributes of the individual brands.

23 .Emotional Appeals Emotional appeals are based on three ideas. Most creatives view emotional advertising as the key to developing brand loyalty. Emotional advertising can capture a viewer¶s attention and help develop an attachment between a consumer and a brand. Rational appeals go unnoticed unless the consumer is in the market for a particular product at the time it is advertised. Consumers ignore most advertisements.

fear.Emotional Appeals Television is one of the best media for emotional appeals. because it has intrusion value and can utilize both sound and sight. Emotions can be tied with humor. music. Facial expressions can convey emotions and attitudes. and other appeals to make a compelling case for a product. 24 .

Works well when tied with other appeals. B-to-B advertisements using more emotional appeals. Viewed by creatives as key to developing brand loyalty. Rational ads go unnoticed.Emotional Appeals Based on three ideas:    Consumers ignore most ads. Emotional ads can capture attention. Uses peripheral processing route. 25 .

This ad for a nonprofit animal rights and rescue group draws on viewers¶ sympathies toward animals. 26 .

Emotions Used in Advertisements Trust Reliability Friendship Happiness Security Glamour/luxury Serenity Anger Protecting loved ones Romance Passion Family Bonds     with parents with siblings with children with extended family members 27 .

com reminds viewers of the fickle nature of children.Emotional Appeal This ad by iparty. 28 .

A scarcity appeal is often used with other promotional tools. such as a price discount to encourage retailers who stock up. . sweepstakes and coupons. Scarcity appeals urge consumers to buy a particular product because of a limitation. The primary benefit of scarcity appeals is that they encourage 29 consumers to take action. Encourages customers to take action. or. Often tied with promotion tools such as contests.Scarcity Appeals Based on limited supply or Based on limited time to purchase. more often. that the product is available for only a limited time. The limitation can be a limited number of the products available.

Amplification. The spelling out of a promise (sub-headline). 30 . Proof of the claim.The Structure of an Advertisement The majority of ads prepared for publication or broadcast tend to have five elements: The promise of a benefit (headline). Action to take.