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# Modeling and Analysis of Flow Behavior

## in Multiwell Bounded Reservoirs

Taufan Marhaendrajana
Ph.D. Candidate
Texas A&M University

## SPE International Paper Contest

5 October 1999
10 Second Summary

##  Developed a new method to estimate

the original oil/gas-in-place by analyzing
production data from only one well.
 This method can also be used to esti-
mate the permeability-thickness product
in the drainage area for a particular well.
 These developments are based on an
analytical solution for a multiwell model.
Why is this work important?

 Multiwell Solution
 Accurate
 Rigorous and robust
 Very fast solution (can be run on a PC)

##  Multiwell Analysis Approach

 Can be based on single-well decline type curve
 "Total Material Balance Time"  system volume
 Easy-to-apply

 Validation
 Homogeneous reservoir case
 Heterogeneous reservoir case
 Field Cases (Arun Gas Field, Indonesia)
Outline

 Introduction
 Objectives
 Physical Model and Analytical Solution
 Decline Type Curve Analysis
 Field Application (Arun Field, Indonesia)
 Conclusions
 Recommendations for Extensions of This Work
Introduction

Production ofData
Current Multiwell
Modeling Analysis?
Models
Individual
 Single
Well Performance?
Well
Rodriguez
Valko et Model
al and
(1998)
Cinco-Ley (1993)
 (Well-by-well
et alanalysis)
Camacho (1996) only

– Does
Is a single
Constant well model
not provide
pressure satis-
a only
mechanism
factory?
– for analyzing production
– Does not provide a mechanism
for analyzing production data
Bounded Reservoir
with Multiple Wells
Objectives

## 1. To Develop an Analytical Solution for a

Single Well or Multiple Wells in a Multiwell
Reservoir System
 Correctly models all flow regimes.
 Completely general formulation (constant rate,
constant pressure, or variable-rate/pressure).
2. To Develop a Method for the Analysis of
Production Data from a Multiwell System
 Estimate the original oil/gas-in-place.
 Estimate the local flow capacity (permeability-
thickness product).
Physical Model

(0,0,0) xe
ye

ze

Assumptions:
 Homogeneous, Closed Reservoir
 Slightly Compressible Fluid
 Fully Penetrating Wells
Well Pressure Solution (Convolution Form)

## pD([xwD,k + ],[y wD,k + ],tDA) =

t DA
n well dp D,cr(t DA –  )

i=1
q D,i()
d
d + q D,k(t DA) s k
k,i
0

## Constant Rate Solution  Accuracy

For Single Well in A Closed  Speed
Rectangular Reservoir  Formulation

i = well counter
k = well index (well location where pressure is evaluated)
Numerical Simulation Model (Base Case)

16000
[3,1] [3,2] [3,3]
Initial Pressure :5,000 psi
14000 Permeability :5 md
12000
Porosity :0.2
Y-Direction, ft

## 10000 [2,1] [2,2] [2,3] Total Comp. :3x10-6 1/psia

8000
Thickness :500 ft
6000

## 4000 [1,1] [1,2] [1,3]

Area :16,8602 ft2
2000
No. of Wells :Nine
0 Oil Viscosity :0.8 cp
10000

12000

14000

16000
2000

4000

6000

8000
0

## FVF :1.184 RB/STB

X-Direction, ft OOIP :4,278 MMSTB
5000 5000 5000

Well [1,1] 4000
Well [1,2] 4000
Well [1,3]
3000 3000 3000

## 1000 1000 1000

0 0 0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000
5000 5000 5000

4000
Well [2,1] 4000
Well [2,2] 4000
Well [2,3]
3000 3000 3000

## 1000 1000 1000

0 0 0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000
5000 5000 5000

4000
Well [3,1] 4000
Well [3,2] 4000
Well [3,3]
3000 3000 3000

## 1000 1000 1000

0 0 0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000

Time, Days
4 4
10 10 4
10
Well [1,1] Well [1,2] Well [1,3]

## Legend: Legend: Legend:

Numerical Simulation Numerical Simulation Numerical Simulation
Analytical Solution Analytical Solution Analytical Solution
3 3
10 10 3
10
0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000
Oil Rate, STB/D

4 4 4
10 10 10

## Legend: Legend: Legend:

Numerical Simulation Numerical Simulation Numerical Simulation
Analytical Solution Analytical Solution Analytical Solution
3 3 3
10 10 10
0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000
4 4 4
10 10 10

3
10

## Legend: Legend: Legend:

Numerical Simulation Numerical Simulation Numerical Simulation
Analytical Solution Analytical Solution Analytical Solution
3 2 3
10 10 10
0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000

Time, Days
Analytical Solution Matches
Numerical Solution

Initial pwf
Oil Rate, STB/D

Variable pwf
Final pwf

Well [1,2]

Time, Days
Decline Type Curve Analysis

##  Formulation for Multiwell Decline Type

Curve Analysis
 Fetkovich/McCray Decline Type Curve
 Decline Type Curve Analysis Procedure
 Application to Simulated Performance Data
Formulation for Multiwell Analysis
using Decline Type Curves

q k(t) 1
=
(p i – p wf ) t n well
1 1

Nc t q k(t) 0 i = 1
q i(t)dt + c(t)

Production Data
(Pressure & Rate) c(t) c(t)
includes:
becomes
Total Material
-Transient
constant flow
at long
Balance Time
-Reservoirtimes
shape
-Well location
Np,field
vs ttot = q
well
Original-Oil-in-Place
Type Curve Construction
(Multiwell System)

141.2B q
 qDde = p ln (r eD/  D ) – 0.5
kh
k t tot 2
 t Dde,b ar = 0.00633
 c tA
ln (r eD/  D ) – 0.5

## D= 1 D= 9 D= 25

"Total Material Balance Time" Generalizes
The Fetkovich/McCray Type Curve
Dimensionless Rate Functions

1
) , qDdeid
10
12 7 4
7 4
qDde, qDdei

12
28 18
Ddei, qDdeid

80 48
800 160
0
10 1x104
, qFunctions,

80 48 28 18 12 7 4 qDdei
160

800
(qDdeRate

-1
10
Dimensionless

## r eD/  D =1x104 qDdeid qDde

-2
10
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10 10
Dimensionless Time, tDde
Dimensionless Total Material Balance Time, tDde,bar
Decline Type Curve Analysis Procedure

Log-log Plot

Model Data
(Dimensionless qwell/pwell
Variables) tbar,tot=Np,field/qwell

Match

 Original Oil/Gas-In-Place (N or G)
 Flow Capacity (kh)
All Curves Overlay Each Other
(Homogeneous Reservoir Example)
STB/D/psi

1
10
p) id,,STB/D/psi

(q/ p)i
0
(q/p)id is affected by (q/ p)
10
severe rate changes
i, (q/ p)id

(unlikely in practice)
(q/ p)id
(q/
(q/i,p)

-1
10
p)

Legend:
 p,
q/p, q/(q/

## Well [1,1]; Well [2,1]; Well [3,1]

Well [1,2]; Well [2,2]; Well [3,2]
Well [1,3]; Well [2,3]; Well [3,3]
-2
10
0 1 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10 10 10
Total Material Balance Time, tbar,e, Days
tbar,tot = Np,field/qwell, Days
Multiwell Model Is More Accurate
Than Single Well Model
Dimensionless Rate Functions

1
Dimensionless Rate Functions, qDde, qDdei, qDdeid

10
12 7 4
7 4
Total material balance
12 functions align with
(qDde, qDdei, qDdeid)

28 18
80 48 correct solution
0
800 160
10 1x104
80 48 28 18 12 7 4
160

800
-1
10

eD// 
rreD D =1x104

-2
10
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10 10
Dimensionless Total Material Balance Time, tDde
Dimensionless Material Balance Time, tDd,bar
or
Dimensionless
Dimensionless Total
Total Material
Material Balance
Balance Time,
Time, ttDde,bar
Dde,bar
Locally Homogeneous Reservoir Example

16000 Issues:
14000
 Can we analyze
[ 20 mD ]
12000 multiwell performance?
Y-Direction, ft

## 10000  Accuracy of results?

8000  In-place volume
6000
[ 15 mD ]  kh-product
 Uniqueness of the
4000
analysis?
2000
[ 25 mD ] [ 5 mD ] [ 10 mD ]
0
10000

12000

14000

16000
2000

4000

6000

8000
0

0 5 10 15 20 25
X-Direction, ft Permeability, mD
5000 5000 5000

Bottom Hole Flowing Pressure, psi 4000 Well [1,1] 4000 Well [1,2] 4000 Well [1,3]
3000 3000 3000

## 1000 1000 1000

0 0 0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000

3000 3000 3000

## 1000 1000 1000

0 0 0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000

3000 3000 3000

## 1000 1000 1000

0 0 0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000

Time, Days
5 5 5
10 10 10

4
Well [1,1] 4
Well [1,2] 4
Well [1,3]
10 10 10

3 3 3
10 10 10

2 2 2
10 10 10
0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000
Oil Rate, STB/D

5 5 5
10 10 10

## Well [2,1] Well [2,2] Well [2,3]

4 4 4
10 10 10

3 3 3
10 10 10

2 2 2
10 10 10
0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000

5 5 5
10 10 10

## Well [3,1] Well [3,2] Well [3,3]

4 4 4
10 10 10

3 3 3
10 10 10

2 2 2
10 10 10
0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000

Time, Days
All Curves Converge to A Single
Material Balance Trend

2
10

Decreasing Permeability
Material Balance
Trend
p, p,STB/D/psi
STB/D/psi

1
10

0
q/q/

10
Legend:
Well [1,1]; Well [2,1]; Well [3,1]
Well [1,2]; Well [2,2]; Well [3,2]
Well [1,3]; Well [2,3]; Well [3,3]
-1
10
0 1 2 3 4 5
10 10 10 10 10 10
Total Material Balance Time, tbar,e, Days
tbar,tot = Np,field/qwell, Days
Locally Homogeneous Reservoir Example

1
qDde, q)Ddei, qDdeid

10
Dimensionless Rate Functions

12 7 4
7 4 Well [1,1]; Well [2,1]; Well [3,1]
12 Well [1,2]; Well [2,2]; Well [3,2]
28 18 Well [1,3]; Well [2,3]; Well [3,3]
, qDdeid

80 48
800 160
0
10 1x104
Functions,

80 48 28 18 12 7 4
160
, qDdei

800
(qDdeRate

-1
10
Dimensionless

 DD =1x104
eD// 
rreD

-2
10
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10 10
Dimensionless Time, tDde
Dimensionless Total Material Balance Time, tDde,bar
16000 Well k, calc. k, input
14000
[3,1] [3,2] [3,3] (md) (md)
[ 20 mD ] [1,1] 22.7 25
12000
Y-Direction, ft

## 10000 [1,2] 5.15 5.0

[2,1] [2,2] [2,3]
8000 [1,3] 10.1 10
[ 15 mD ]
6000 [2,1] 5.15 5.0
4000 [1,1] [1,2] [1,3] [2,2] 9.77 10
2000 [2,3] 13.8 15
[ 25 mD ] [ 5 mD ] [ 10 mD ]
0 [3,1] 9.94 10
10000

12000

14000

16000
2000

4000

6000

8000
0

[3,2] 14.2 15
X-Direction, ft [3,3] 18.9 20

## OOIP (Input) 4,278 MMSTB

0 5 10 15 20 25
Permeability, mD OOIP (Calc.) 4,278 MMSTB
Field Application

##  Description/Layout of Arun Gas Field

 Analysis of Production Data (13 Wells)
 Comparison with Previous Results
Arun Field Field Description
 Located in Northern part of
Sumatra, Indonesia
 One of the largest gas fields in
the world
 Arun Field has 111 wells:
 79 producers
 11 injectors
 4 observation wells
 17 wells have been abandoned

## Arun Well A-015

N Arun Well A-016
Well Performance Data: Arun Well A-015
Mscf/D Mscf/D

300000 6000

Pressure

Rate,

250000 4000

Stream) Rate,

200000 2000
Stream)

Pressure,
150000 0
Well

Gas
Gas Rate
Rate
Well

100000 -2000
Gas (Total

psi
Gas (Total

psi
50000 -4000

0 -6000
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
Time, Days
Time, Days

## , Gas Rate and Wellhead Pressure for Well A-015

, Gas Rate and Wellhead Pressure for Well A-016
Type Curve Match: Arun Well A-015
(Excellent Match of Data/Type Curve)

1
qDde, q)Ddei, qDdeid

10
Dimensionless Rate Functions

## 12 7 4 Legend: C-III-02 (Arun A-015)

7 4
12 q/pp
28 18 (q/pp)i
, qDdeid

80 48 (q/pp)id
800 160
0
10 1x104
Functions,

80 48 28 18 12 7 4
160
, qDdei

800
(qDdeRate

-1
10
Dimensionless

Transition
eD// D =1x10
rreD 4
Boundary
Transient Flow Dominated
Flow
-2
10
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10 10
Dimensionless Time, tDde
Dimensionless Total Material Balance Time, tDde,bar
Well Performance Data: Arun Well A-016
Mscf/D Mscf/D

300000 6000

Pressure

Rate,

250000 4000

Stream) Rate,

200000 2000
Stream)

Pressure,
150000 0
Well

Gas
Gas Rate
Rate
Well

100000 -2000
Gas (Total

psi
Gas (Total

psi
50000 -4000

0 -6000
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000
Time, Days
Time, Days

## , Gas Rate and Wellhead Pressure for Well A-015

, Gas Rate and Wellhead Pressure for Well A-016
Type Curve Match: Arun Well A-016
(Excellent Match of Data/Type Curve)

1
qDdei, qDdeid

10
Dimensionless Rate Functions

7 4
12 q/pp
28 18 (q/pp)i
qDde, )

80 48
, qDdeid

## 800 160 (q/pp)id

0
10 1x104
Functions,

80 48 28 18 12 7 4
160
qDdei

800
(qDde,Rate

-1
10
Dimensionless

Transition
eD// D =1x10
rreD 4
Boundary
Transient Flow Dominated
Flow
-2
10
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10 10
Dimensionless Time, tDde
Dimensionless Total Material Balance Time, tDde,bar
Results of Multiwell Analysis at Arun Field

## Reservoir OGIP (TCF)

Cumulative
Well Flow Capacity JPT (June 1983) Production
(md-ft) This Study Numerical Sim. (Nov. 1998)

## Arun A-015 912

19.8 17.1 16.1
Arun A-016 996

?
Production History: (As of November 1998)
 Cumulative gas production (gross) = 21.3 TCF
Difference
 Cumulative gas reinjected = 5.2 TCF
 Net cumulative gas production = 21.3-5.2 = 16.1 TCF
 Current monthly gas production = 50 BCF (0.6 TCF/yr)
All Cases Converge to A Single
Material Balance Trend (Arun Field Data)
3
10
Function, q/pp, Mscf/D/psi

Material BalanceTrend
for Arun Gas Field
2
10 (OGIP=19.8 TCF)
q/ p, STB/D/psi

1
10
Well Rate/Pressure-Drop

## 0 Legend: Arun Gas Field

10
C-I-02 (A-036) C-III-02 (A-015)

## C-I-08 (A-027) C-III-03 (A-034)

C-I-09 (A-044) C-III-04 (A-016)
-1 C-II-01 (A-037) C-III-06 (A-017)
10 C-II-04 (A-024) C-III-09 (A-028)
C-II-09 (A-021) C-III-05 (A-035)
C-II-16 (A-029)
-2
10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Total Material Balance Time, tbar,tot=Gp,field/qg,well, Days
tbar,tot = Gp,field/qwell, Days
Type Curve Match: Arun Field--13 Wells
(Excellent Match of Data/Type Curve)
1
10 7
Dimensionless Rate Functions

7
) , qDdeid

18
qDde, qDdei

48
Ddei, qDdeid

4160
0 1x10
10
, qFunctions,

48 18 7
160
Rate

4
r eD/ DD) = 1x10
reD/sqrt(
(qDde

-1
10
Dimensionless

## C-I-02 (A-036) C-II-09 (A-021) C-III-04 (A-016)

C-I-08 (A-027) C-II-16 (A-029) C-III-06 (A-017)
C-I-09 (A-044) C-III-02 (A-015) C-III-09 (A-028)
C-II-01 (A-037) C-III-03 (A-034) C-III-05 (A-035)
C-II-04 (A-024)
-2
10
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10 10
Dimensionless Total Material Balance Time, tDde
Dimensionless Total Material Balance Time, tDde,bar
Conclusions

## 1. Developed a Real Space Analytical Solution

for a Closed Rectangular Reservoir with
One or More Wells
– Can serve as analytical reservoir simulator.
– Completely general formulation (constant rate,
constant pressure, or variable-rate/pressure).
Conclusions
2. This Solution Provides a Mechanism for the
Decline Type Curve Analysis in a Multiwell
Reservoir System
 Can
Conserves
Rigorous
The key
be
useused
for
pressure-rate
and
volume
the
for
accurate
decline
well
ofperformance
the
type
performance
approach
entire
curvesystem.
monitoring.
for
analysis
data
estima-
for
in
ting
only
a multiwell
one
original
well
system
oil/gas-in-place
to estimate
is to use
original
intotal
the
oil/gas-in-
material
overall
reservoir
place.
balance time.
system and formation permeability
in the local reservoir system.
Conclusions

## 3. We Have Successfully Demonstrated the

Application of the New Method to Analyze
Production Data From Arun Gas Field
Recommendations for Extensions of This Work

##  Including various reservoir outer boundary

conditions other than the closed (no-flow)
outer boundary.
 Development and application of a method-
ology to estimate the near-well skin factor.
Modeling and Analysis of Flow Behavior
in Multiwell Bounded Reservoirs

Taufan Marhaendrajana
Ph.D. Candidate
Texas A&M University

## SPE International Paper Contest

5 October 1999
Heterogeneous Reservoir Example

16000 Issues:
14000  Effect of a randomly
12000 heterogeneous
Y-Direction, ft

10000
medium?
 Accuracy of results?
8000
 In-place volume
6000
 kh-product
4000  Uniqueness/meaning
2000 of the analysis?
0
10000

12000

14000

16000
2000

4000

6000

8000
0

0 2 4 6 8 10
X-Direction, ft Permeability, mD
5000 5000 5000

Bottom Hole Flowing Pressure, psi 4000 Well [1,1] 4000 Well [1,2] 4000 Well [1,3]
3000 3000 3000

## 1000 1000 1000

0 0 0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000

3000 3000 3000

## 1000 1000 1000

0 0 0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000

3000 3000 3000

## 1000 1000 1000

0 0 0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000

Time, Days
4 4 4
10 10 10

## Well [1,1] Well [1,2] Well [1,3]

3
10

3 2 3
10 10 10
0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000
Oil Rate, STB/D

4 4 4
10 10 10

## Well [2,1] Well [2,2] Well [2,3]

3 3
10 10

3 2 2
10 10 10
0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000

4 4 4
10 10 10

## Well [3,1] Well [3,2] Well [3,3]

3 3
10 10

2 2 3
10 10 10
0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 0 500 1000 1500 2000

Time, Days
All Curves Converge to a Single
Material Balance Trend

1
10
(q/ p)id, STB/D/psi

Material Balance
p)i,STB/D/psi

Trend
0
10

Decreasing Permeability
(q/p,

-1
10 Legend:
q/ p, q/

## Well [1,1]; Well [2,1]; Well [3,1]

Well [1,2]; Well [2,2]; Well [3,2]
Well [1,3]; Well [2,3]; Well [3,3]
-2
10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Total Material Balance Time, tbar,e, Days
tbar,e = Np,field/q, Days
Heterogeneous Reservoir Example

1
qDde,)qDdei, qDdeid

10
Dimensionless Rate Functions

12 7 4
Well [1,1]; Well [2,1]; Well [3,1]
7 4
12 Well [1,2]; Well [2,2]; Well [3,2]
28 18 Well [1,3]; Well [2,3]; Well [3,3]
80 48
, qDdeid

800 160
0
10 1x104
Functions,

80 48 28 18 12 7 4
160
qDdei

800
(qDde,Rate

-1
10
Dimensionless

eD// 
rreD D =1x104

-2
10
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10 10 10
Dimensionless Time, tDde
Dimensionless Total Material Balance Time, tDde
Calculated Results
(Randomly Heterogeneous Reservoir)

Well k OOIP
(md) (MMSTB)
[1,1] 4.04 4,278
[1,2] 3.27 4,278
[1,3] 4.44 4,278
[2,1] 4.30 4,278
[2,2] 2.52 4,278
[2,3] 3.38 4,278
[3,1] 3.93 4,278
[3,2] 3.99 4,278
[3,3] 3.64 4,278
Observations:
 Individual well performance
16000 appears to be "homogeneous"
14000  Computed in-place volume is
3.73 essentially exact
12000
 Computes permeability
Y-Direction, ft

## 10000 represents harmonic average

8000
in well drainage area

6000
4.10
4000 Results:
2000 Well k, calc. k, input
0 (md) (md)
10000

12000

14000

16000
2000

4000

6000

8000
0

## [1,1] 4.04 4.10

X-Direction, ft [3,3] 3.64 3.73
OOIP (Input) 4,278 MMSTB
0 2 4 6 8 10
Permeability, mD OOIP (Calc.) 4,278 MMSTB
Well Pressure Solution (Continued)

## New Single-Well Solution: (Constant Rate)

 
pD(xD,y D,tDA) = 1   E a
2 m = –  n = –  1 mn
+ E1 b mn + E1 cmn + E1 dmn

## + xwD + 2nxeD)2 + (yD –

(xD – + ywD
wD + 2my eD
eD)
22
b
a
d
cmn =
4tDA

Characteristics:
 Exact
 Very fast (2-3 seconds/100 points)
Well Pressure Solution

## pD([xwD,k + ],[y wD,k + ],tDA,n) =

Nwell
+  q [p
i=1
Di,0 Dcr(tDA,n)] ki

n – 1 Nwell
+   (q Di,m – qDi,m – 1) [pD,cr(tDA,n – tDA,m – 1)] ki
m=2 i=1
Nwell
– q
i=1
Di,n – 1 [pD,cr(tDA,n – tDA,n – 1)] ki

Nwell
+ q
i=1
Di,n [pD,cr(tDA,n – tDA,n – 1)] ki + qDk(tDA,n) sk