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DESALINATION PLANT

AUGUST 2007

LHT ENGINEERING JSC

Introduction
Desalination is the process of removing salt from sea water so that it can be used for drinking, watering crops or water source for industry.

Salinity : NaCl, MgCl2, MgSO4, CaSO4,K2SO4,CaCO3, MgBr2, etc

Desalination Plant

Sea water

Fresh water

Desalination Process
Multi-Stage Flash Distillation(MSF)

Thermal Process

Multi-Effect Distillation(MED) Vapor Compression Distillation(VCD)

Reverse Osmosis (R/O)

Desalinatio n Process

Membrane Process

Electrodialysis Electrodialysis Reversal Process(EDR) Freezing

Other Process

Membrane Distillation Solar Humidification Other Solar and Wind-Driven Deaslaters

Multi Stage Flash(MSF) Distillation
Distillation is a phase separation method whereby saline water is heated to produce water vapor, which is then condensed to produce freshwater.

The feedwater (sea water) is passed through the various stages where flashing takes place, then the seawater raised to its highest temperature.

Reverse Osmosis(R/O)
The seawater from a pressurized saline solution is separated from the dissolved salts by flowing through a water-permeable membrane.
Prefilter Feed Pump R/O

Sea Water

Permeate

Brine

<Spiral-wound Module>

<Hollow-fiber Module>

MSF vs. RO
Item Capacity per unit Feed Water - TDS (ppm) - Feed treatment - Chemical (ppm) Product Water - TDS (ppm) - Recovery (%) Type of Energy - MP Steam - LP Steam - Electricity (kWh/ ㎥ ) - Thermal (kWh/ ㎥ ) Performance - Max Operating Temp. - G.O.R (kg of dis./kg of steam) MSF 75,920 ㎥ /day (16.7 MIGD) Below 50,000 Anti-Scale/foam 2~4 5 ~ 25 10 ~ 15 For Ejector(small) 2.5 ~ 4 bar at sat. Temp 3~4 3.5 90 ~ 112 deg C 8 ~ 10 RO 68,182 ㎥ /day (15.0 MIGD) Below 50,000 Chloride, acid, polymer 2~4 <500 35 ~ 50 NA NA 4~7

Ambient NA

MSF vs. RO
Item Relative O&M Characteristics - Operation Attention - Maintenance Attention - Potential for scale formation Relative advantages - Potential for corrosion MSF Close, continual Medium Medium Low to medium -High quality product -Long history of operation -Easy operation -Use high quality material RO High(pretreatment) Medium Average Very Low -Fairly simple to operate -Variety of sizes & modules(train) -Membrane life limit of 3~5years -Need Extensive pretreatment of feed water

Relative disadvantages