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Auditing in CIS Environment

Week 5
Batch System
• The efficient way of processing high/large
volumes of data where a group of
transactions is collected over a certain period
of time
• Information is collected, entered, processed
and then the batch outputs are produced.
Batch System Characteristics:
• Jobs are stored in job queues until the computer is ready to
deal with them.
• There is no interaction between the user and the computer
while the program is being run. Computers which do batch
processing often operate all night so the user might be at
home asleep.
• Batch processing is often used where a large amount of data
has to be processed on a regular basis. The program is not
changed and it is so routine that there is no need for anyone
to be present while the program is running.
• Batch processing is normally done on large mainframe
computers.
Real Time System
• It involves continuous input, process and
output of data
• Data are processed in a short period of
time
• Examples of programs that use such data
processing type are bank ATMs, customer
services, radar systems, and Point of Sale
(POS) Systems.
Real Time System
• POS uses this data process to update the
inventory, provide inventory history, and sales
of a particular item – allowing business to
handle payments in real time.
• Every transaction is directly reflected to the
master file so that it will always be updated.
Real Time System Characteristics:

The computer is always ready for data to be input. As


soon as this data is received it is processed, and results
are output straight away.

Because the output can be produced very quickly, it is


often used to influence the system producing the input
data. Real time systems can be used to control processes

The computer is often dedicated to the real time


application. It is working on that application and on
nothing else. It just runs the same program all the time.
Advantages
Batch System Real Time System
Ideal for processing large No significant delay
volumes of data/transaction
It offers cost efficiency for the Information is always up to
organization by carrying out date
the process (data
reconciliation for the master
file)
Can be done or processed Gives the organization the
independently ability to gain insights from
the updated data
Allows good audit trail
Disadvantages
Batch System Real Time System
Time Delay More expensive and
complex
Master File (The A bit tedious and more
organizations big data) is not difficult for auditing
always kept up to date
One time process can be Daily data backups (depends
very slow on transaction frequency)
Internet Commerce
• Broad term covering all commercial activity on
the internet, including auctioning, placing
orders, making payments, transferring funds,
and collaborating with trading partners.
Internet commerce is not a synonym for
electronic commerce (e-commerce) but one of
its subsets.
Characteristics of Internet
Commerce
• Information-intensive products
• Medium to high value
• Global in applicability
• May require sourcing or delivering at a
distance
• Often highly specialized
• Dispersed potential customer base
• Are attractive to Internet early adopters
Opportunities
• Timeliness - Email queries can be handled more expeditiously and
completely than is often possible by mail or phone.
• Reduced Marketing Costs - Online catalogues are cheaper to produce
and maintain that paper catalogues.
• Better Targetting - Internet communities are self selecting. People
with particular interests tend to visit particular places in Cyberspace.
Customers find you, rather than vice versa.
• Greater Market Reach - Distance is no object. Sending information or
exchanging messages costs virtually the same as someone locally. You
don't need to pay expensive courier bills.
• Reduced communications costs - With electronic networking it cost
virtually the same to send a message to 100 people as to one.
• Improved After Sales Service - By providing online support, customers
can serve themselves for many of the common post-sales information
needs.
• The full sales and marketing cycle - analyzing online
feedback to ascertain customer's needs

• Identifying new markets - through exposure to a global


audience through the World Wide Web

• Developing ongoing customer relationships - achieving


loyalty through ongoing email interaction

• Assisting potential customers with their purchasing decision


- guiding them through product choices in an intelligent way
• Providing round-the-clock points of sale - making it
easy for buyers to order online, irrespective of location

• Supply Chain Management - supporting those in the


supply chain, such as dealers and distributors, through
online interaction

• Ongoing Customer Support - providing extensive after-


sales support to customers by online methods; thus
increasing satisfaction, deepening the customer
relationship and closing the selling loop through repeat
and ongoing purchases.
E-commerce
• E-commerce (electronic commerce or EC) is
the buying and selling of goods and services,
or the transmitting of funds or data, over an
electronic network, primarily the internet.
These business transactions occur either as
business-to-business, business-to-consumer,
consumer-to-consumer or consumer-to-
business.
Characteristics of E–commerce:
1. Establishment of B to B relationship.
2. Electronic payment.
3. E – distribution of products & services.
4. Exchange of information.
5. Pre and post – sales support.
6. Customer relationship management.
Disadvantages
• Limited customer service
• No ability to touch and see a product
• No instant gratification
Database
Collection of information that
is organized so that it can
easily be accessed, managed,
and updated. In one view,
databases can be classified
according to types of content:
bibliographic, full-text,
numeric, and images.
Characteristics of Database
• Self describing nature
• Insulation between program and data
(program-data independence)
• Support for multiple views of data
• Sharing of data and multiuser system
• Control of data redundancy
Characteristics of Database
• Data sharing
• Enforcement of integrity constraints
• Restriction of unauthorized access
• Transaction processing
• Provision for multiple views of data
• Backup and recovery facilities
Database Management System
A database management system (DBMS) is system
software for creating and managing databases. The
DBMS provides users and programmers with a systematic
way to create, retrieve, update and manage data.
A DBMS makes it possible for end users to create, read,
update and delete data in a database. The DBMS
essentially serves as an interface between the database
and end users or application program, ensuring that data
is consistently organized and remains easily accessible.
Database Management System

• Support ACID Properties


• Represents complex relationship between
data
• Data Integrity
• Concurrence use of database
• Back up recovery
• Structure and described data
Components of DBMS
Software
This is the set of programs used to control and manage
the overall database. This includes the DBMS software
itself, the Operating System, the network software being
used to share the data among users, and the application
programs used to access data in the DBMS.
Hardware
Consists of a set of physical electronic devices such as
computers, I/O devices, storage devices, etc., this
provides the interface between computers and the real
world systems.
Data
DBMS exists to collect, store, process and access data,
the most important component. The database contains
both the actual or operational data and the metadata.
Procedures
These are the instructions and rules that assist on how to
use the DBMS, and in designing and running the database,
using documented procedures, to guide the users that
operate and manage it.
Database Access Language
This is used to access the data to and from the database, to
enter new data, update existing data, or retrieve required
data from databases. The user writes a set of appropriate
commands in a database access language, submits these to
the DBMS, which then processes the data and generates and
displays a set of results into a user readable form.
Query Processor
This transforms the user queries into a series of low level
instructions. This reads the online user’s query and
translates it into an efficient series of operations in a form
capable of being sent to the run time data manager for
execution.
Run Time Database Manager
Sometimes referred to as the database control system, this is
the central software component of the DBMS that interfaces
with user-submitted application programs and queries, and
handles database access at run time. Its function is to
convert operations in user’s queries. It provides control to
maintain the consistency, integrity and security of the data.
Data Manager
Also called the cache manger, this is responsible for handling
of data in the database, providing a recovery to the system
that allows it to recover the data after a failure.
Database Engine
The core service for storing, processing, and securing data,
this provides controlled access and rapid transaction
processing to address the requirements of the most
demanding data consuming applications. It is often used to
create relational databases for online transaction processing
or online analytical processing data.
Data Dictionary
This is a reserved space within a database used to
store information about the database itself. A data
dictionary is a set of read-only table and views,
containing the different information about the data
used in the enterprise to ensure that database
representation of the data follow one standard as
defined in the dictionary.

Report Writer
ls referred to as the report generator, it is a program
that extracts information from one or more files and
presents the information in a specified format. Most
report writers allow the user to select records that
meet certain conditions and to display selected fields
in rows and columns, or also format the data into
different charts.
What is the difference between Database
and Database management system?
Database is a collection of interrelated data.
Database management system is a software
which can be used to manage the data by
storing it on to the data base and by retrieving it
from the data base.
And DBMS is a collection of interrelated data
and some set of programs to access the data.
Quiz
I. Write True or False
1. Batch System is the efficient way of processing
high/large volumes of data where a group of
transactions is collected over a short period of time.
2. In real time system as soon as the data is received it is
processed, and results are output straight away.
3. Batch system can be done or processed independently.
4. In batch system, there is always a delay before work is
processed and returned and the user cannot take action
if anything is wrong. The job has to be corrected and
input again.
5. One advantage of E-commerce is the limit in customer
service.
6. DBMS is the collection of information that is
organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed,
updated and manipulated.
7. In batch system, there is an interaction between the
user and the computer while the program is being run.
8-10 Give one characteristic of the following:
8. Database.
9. Internet Commerce
10. E-commerce
ANSWERS