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Mechanisms of Plate Motion

Causes of Plate Motion


 Scientists generally agree that convection
occurring in the mantle is the basic driving
force for plate movement.

• Convective flow is the motion of


matter resulting from changes in
temperature.
Mechanisms of Plate Motion

Causes of Plate Motion


 Slab-Pull and Ridge-Push
• Slab-pull  mekanisme yg berkontibusi pd
pergerakan lempeng: kerak samudera yg dingin
dan padat tenggelam dalam lapisan mantel dan
“pulls” di sepanjang litosfer.

• Ridge-push menyebabkan kerak samudera


tergelincir causes oceanic lithosphere to slide
down the sides of the oceanic ridge under the
pull of gravity. It may contribute to plate motion.
Mechanisms of Plate Motion

Yang menyebabkan bergeraknya lempeng:


Konveksi mantel
• Mantle plumes adl massa dg T >>>
(mantel) yg bergerak ke permukaan bumi
 penyebab aktivitas magmatisme

• Penyebaran suhu yang tidak sama dalam


tubuh bumi  konveksi thermal dalam
mantel  menimbulkan plate motion.
Mantle Convection Models
Convection Currents

The force responsible for plate movement is __________.


Plate Boundaries
• The following two slides show maps of the
current major plate boundaries and their
relative motions.
• You should be able to describe various
landforms created by different plate
movements.
Plate Tectonics

Earth’s Major Roles


 According to the plate tectonics theory,
the uppermost mantle, along with the
overlying crust, behaves as a strong, rigid
layer. This layer is known as the
lithosphere.
• A plate is one of numerous rigid sections of the lithosphere that
move as a unit over the material of the asthenosphere.
Plate Tectonics

Types of Plate Boundaries


 Divergent boundaries (also called
spreading centers) are the place where two
plates move apart.
 Convergent boundaries form where two
plates move together.
 Transform fault boundaries are margins
where two plates grind past each other
without the production or destruction of the
lithosphere.
Divergent boundary of two continental plates.
rift valley Example: _____________
Creates a __________. East African Rift
Convergent boundary of two oceanic plates.
Creates an island arc and a _____.
________ trench Example: _____
Japan
Convergent boundary of an oceanic plate and a continental
plate. Forms a volcanic trench
_______ mountain range and a ______.
Examples: Cascades
_______ or _______
Andes Mts
Convergent boundary of two continental plates. Forms a
folded Himalayas
______ mountain range. Examples: ___________, Alps,
Appalachians
______________
Transform-fault boundary where the North American and
past each other.
Pacific plates are moving ____
San Andreas Fault in California
Example: ________________
Breakup of
Pangaea