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Chapter 1:

Exploring the Network

Introduction to Networks

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Networking Today
Networks in Our Past and Daily Lives

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Providing Resources in a Network
Peer-to-Peer

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1.1.2.2 Clients and Servers

Clients are powerful. Workstations are accessing Server that have email and files
on them – local environment, a Switch. A printer stands alone, a lot of people can
share it, but it’s set up so there’s no impact on the client him/herself, makes it easy
to manage the Peer-to-peer network.

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LANs and WANs
Types of Networks
The two most common types of network infrastructures are:
 Local Area Network (LAN) – switch you can talk to, and, if appropriate, a
connection to the Router port. Needs an network address and must be
unique in the world, so everything can be on that network that’s
connected, every device will have their own address as off of that Network
IP address. Routers exchange information.
 Wide Area Network (WAN)

Other types of networks include:


 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
 Wireless LAN (WLAN)
 Storage Area Network (SAN)

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LANs and WANs
Wide Area Networks (WAN) – one function: determines the path, to send request data to, and
to make that physical switching so that a packet is designed to go thru this network, to come
out of one of these interfaces, and to the LAN directly.

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Devices are all the
icons to the right.
LAN
Media that connects
them: copper wire,
fiber-optic cable,
signal thru the air,
light signals, etc.
Media is he
Transmission at
physical level that
identifies the 1s and
0s at, what gets
rolled up into bytes,
gets rolled up into
applications and
provides services.
Services are not
shown. But it could
be an SAP system,
email Server, or it
can provide a Web
interface.

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LANs, WANs, and the Internet
The Internet

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Components of a Network
End Devices – where things terminate. In case of Broadband wireless network, your
Mobile, ipod, Samsung tablet and such. Distinguished from Intermediary devices.

Some examples of end devices are:


 Computers (work stations, laptops, file servers, web servers)
 Network printers
 VoIP phones
 TelePresence endpoint
 Security cameras
 Mobile handheld devices (such as smart phones, tablets, PDAs, and
wireless debit / credit card readers and barcode scanners)

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Components of a Network
Network Infrastructure Devices

Examples of intermediary network devices are:


 Network Access Devices (switches (provides LAN service)), and wireless access
points)
 Internetworking Devices (routers) – connect LAN networks
 Security Devices (firewalls) – enable protocol rules that prevent intrusion

END DEVICES – send and receive data, that makes sense, to End User.

INTERMEDIARY DEVICES – things that get things from somewhere else.


Provide Intermediary service, they don’t have end users, they just provide a
path way.

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Components of a Network
Network Media

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Components of a Network
Network Representations

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Components of a Network
Topology Diagrams

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LANs, WANs, and the Internet
Intranet (vehicle) and Extranet (customer)

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Connecting to the Internet
Connecting Remote Users to the Internet

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1.3 The Network as a Platform

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Converged Networks
The Converging Network (carry Data services, i.e: voice, video)

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Reliable Network
Supporting Network Architecture
As networks evolve, we are discovering that there are four basic
characteristics that the underlying architectures need to address in order to
meet user expectations:
 Fault Tolerance – never want to have a single component system, don’t want to have another
component do its job, you’re only as robust as your weakest point. At Data Center, doubles of Storage,
there’s always another device that can take over the job. If you don’t have another path though to get that
backup device to take over, then the system won’t work anyway, if for example don’t have another set of
fiber cables going to a different street; hence No fault tolerance. Question is of how important is it to have
extra paths/ addresses covered, the costs. If Circuit Switching gets broken, no Fault Tolerance there.

 Scalability – you grow your network. Physical topology where you can built devices on,
need a map system too, a Logical topology, to provide a logical path, for the determination of
path switching. When you build a big network, you can make it bigger!

 Quality of Service (QoS) – what gets more bandwidth in your system; is it video, is it
data, any kind of media; voice: you can miss some syllables, still know what is said.

 Security

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Reliable Network
Fault Tolerance (not much) in Circuit Switched Network –
one straight line for synchrozination

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Reliable Network
Packet-Switched Networks (TCP Segments) – In the Data Network, you don’t have to send
everything one after the other. If you’re going from here (ccsu, i.e.) want to go to Stamford, or send some Info, you
can go back and forth between the two; if one of them gets clogged up; go on the other Hwy until the other one
clears up and have a sensitivity to that. Put Segment numbers to that on the transmitted data, so when it gets to
the end, Packet 2 can possibly get there before Packet 1, because Packet 2 went on a faster path. TCP was able
to reorder the segments, deliver it to the application in the order that it was transmitted – that’s Packet Switching, a
great leap-forward in Data communications. All paths, message can arrive at any point – TCP/IP.

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Reliable Network
Providing QoS
Examples of priority decisions for an organization might include:
 Time-sensitive communication - increase priority for services like
telephony or video distribution.
 Non time-sensitive communication - decrease priority for web page
retrieval or email.
 High importance to organization - increase priority for production control
or business transaction data.
 Undesirable communication - decrease priority or block unwanted activity,
like peer-to-peer file sharing or live entertainment.

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Network Trends
Data Centers
A (Level 1) data center is a facility used to house computer systems and
associated components including:
CHARACTERISTICS
 Redundant data communications connections
 High-speed virtual servers (sometimes referred to as server farms or
server clusters)
 Redundant storage systems (typically uses SAN technology)
 Redundant or backup power supplies
 Environmental controls (e.g., air conditioning, fire suppression)
 Security devices

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Future of Networking
Network Security – all security breaches are usually Network breaches.

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Network Security – anyone considering IT industry, give Security career a lot of
consideration, in terms of a career, because there so much to do and so few
people that are doing it!
Security Threats - #1 threat to CEOs everywhere is
security on their Network.
The most common external threats to networks include:
 Viruses, worms, and Trojan horses – malware that sits there, tries to weazle into
your device, to steal stuff or bring it down.

 Spyware and adware – see what you’re doing and redirect you at times, to buy stuff or
whatever on your device.
 Zero-day attacks, also called zero-hour attacks
 Hacker attacks

 Denial of service (DoS) attacks – TCP guarantees a delivery; has sequence and
acknowledgement checks, so you can see that what you sent is what you receive, important since you don’t
want a contamination of data. You can ask for conversation with another device, and that device will
acknowledge that. You don’t save any information, you just open up all these phone calls with nobody’s on
them. It creates so many requests of a computer, I use services on a pc that can’t handle it, so it locks up –
that’s the design of DoS, to deny you service by making requests that are break the rules, that cause a lot of
traffic, that is just going nowhere. Like traffic, can move but nothing can happen.
 Data interception and theft
 Identity theft
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Network Security
Security Solutions
Network security components often include:
 Antivirus and antispyware - software
 Firewall filtering – built on top of Access Control Lists, can be appliances that can do same type of
filtering through ports on Routers.

 Dedicated firewall systems


 Access control lists (ACL) – on Routers, have ports – interfaces. With ACL, you
create rules what can go in, what can go out; can control that by program, by direction, by
the protocol, meaning if I want to stop everybody in the classroom from going onto the
Internet, I can do that by putting an ACL on exit port off the Router, going to the internet from
going into that port accessing Local Area Network. That is more in class 502, the first level of
Firewall, something to stop traffic, determined by your Business need.
 Intrusion prevention systems (IPS) – SW, that does similar to what a dedicated Firewall system
does but it can do a lot more. There restrictions on Router ports, on allowing and denying traffic. IPS gives
a more robust solution.

 Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) – IBM uses AT&T Software, to create a robust, a
tunnel that goes through the Internet, that supplies security, so Hackers can’t hack into VPN.
(2 most important above)
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