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Metabolism

The sum total of the chemical processes


that occur in living organisms, resulting
in growth, production of energy,
elimination of waste material, etc.

• Anabolism- build up of complex


molecules
• Catabolism- break down of complex
molecules
ORGANIC BUILDING BLOCK MOLECULES
Fates of Monosaccharides
Amino acids
Organic Acetates
Nucleotide bases
Building
Blocks in ATP ATP catabolic
processes
Metabolism energy
energy
anabolic
processes
ADP+Pi

Polymers
CO2
&
&
other
H 2O
energy
rich
molecules
Cellular Respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 36ADP + 36Pi 

6CO2 + 6H2O + 36ATP


Basic Steps Involved
1 Glycolysis

2 Acetyl CoA Formation

3 Krebs Cycle

4 Electron Transport System


Overview of
Glycolysis
Fats Glycogen Protein
Other
Metabolic
Pathways
Glucose C C C C C C
Glycolysis
2 ATP

2 ADP

2 PGAL C C C C C C
P P

2 NAD+ 4 ADP
2 NADH 4 ATP

2 Pyruvate C C C
Net:
•2 ATP
•2 NADH
•2 Pyruvate molecules
Balance Sheet for Glycolysis
Input
1 Glucose
2 ADP + Pi
2 NAD+
Output
2 Pyruvate
2 ATP
2 NADH
Transition Reaction
Krebs Cycle
Transition (Citric Acid
Reaction Cycle)
Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
Balance Sheet for the Transition
Reaction and Krebs Cycle

Input Output
2 Pyruvate 6 CO2
2 ADP + 2 Pi 2 ATP
8 NAD+ 8 NADH
2 FAD 2 FADH2
Krebs Cycle

Handles other substrates


Intermediate molecules used:
proteins and lipids
Replenishment of
intermediates necessary

Hans Krebs (1937): paper originally rejected


Krebs Cycle

Takes 2 complete
cycles
8 steps, each with
an enzyme
Krebs Cycle 3
Oxidative Phosphorylation

Electrons are transferred from complex to complex and Chemiosmosis


some of their energy is used to pump protons (H+) into the ATP synthesis is powered by the
intermembrane space, creating a proton gradient. flow of H+ back across the inner
mitochondrial membrane through
ATP synthase.
Each Glucose Molecule

CO2 6

NADH 10

FADH2 2

ATP 4
Electron Transport System

CO2 6
used to make ATP
NADH 10

FADH2 2

ATP 4
Electron Transport System 4
Electron Transport System
+Pi
Electron Transport Chain and
Oxidative Phosphorylation
• Electrons are delivered to O, forming O–
• O– attracts H+ to form H2O
Electron trans-
NADH+H+
Glycolysis Krebs
port chain
cycle
and oxidative
phosphorylation

FADH2

Enzyme
Complex II
Enzyme
Complex I

Free energy relative to O2 (kcal/mol)


Enzyme
Complex III

Enzyme
Complex IV

Figure 24.9
Electronic Energy Gradient
• Transfer of energy from NADH + H+ and
FADH2 to oxygen releases large
amounts of energy
• This energy is released in a stepwise
manner through the electron transport
chain
ATP Synthase
• Two major parts connected by a rod
1. Rotor in the inner mitochondrial
membrane
2. Knob in the matrix
• Works like an ion pump in reverse
Intermembrane space

A rotor in the
membrane spins
clockwise when H+
flows through it down
the H+ gradient.

A stator anchored in
the membrane holds
the knob stationary.

As the rotor spins, a


rod connecting the
cylindrical rotor and
knob also spins.

The protruding,
stationary knob
ADP contains three
+ catalytic sites that
join inorganic
phosphate to ADP
to make ATP when
Mitochondrial matrix the rod is spinning.

Figure 24.11
Net ATP Yield ATP
34 to 36 molecules ATP for every
glucose molecule

about 40% efficiency


Transition cycle
Overall ATP Production

Electron Transport System 34


Citric Acid Cycle 2
Glycolysis 2
SUBTOTAL 38
NADH Transport into Mitochondrion* -2
TOTAL 36
Fermentation
(Anaerobic Respiration)
Lactic Acid Fermentation

NAD+
NAD+
NADH
NADH

C C C C C C C C C C C C
(Glycolysis) (Lactic acid fermentation)
Glucose 2 Pyruvate 2 Lactic Acid
Glucose

Anaerobic Aerobic
Respiration Respiration
Pyruvate

Ethanol Acetyl CoA


or
Lactate Krebs
Cycle
INQUIRY
1. What is the end product in glycolysis?
2. What substance is produced by the
oxidation of pyruvate and feeds into
the citric acid cycle?
3. Name a product of fermentation.
4. What role does O2 play in aerobic
respiration?
5. What stage during cellular respiration is the
most ATP synthesized?
6. What is chemiosmosis?
7. When NAD+ and FAD+ are reduced what
do they form?
8. What are they used for?