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Focus on Lead Markets

:
Waste and Recycling
Wastewater Treatment

Ernő Fleit
Associate Professor
Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering
Budapest University of Technology and Economics
Hungary

Problem exposition
 Do we know enough from our solid and liquid
wastes (wastewater)?
 To meet standards – yes
 For sustainability and lead market objectives –
probably not
 Key issues on waste management
 High-tech (generation) low-tech (waste
management) dilemmas
 Virtually no old concepts exist
 New ideas in old environment – urban cycles

composting. New Directive on waste (EU Directive 2006/12/EC)  Waste hierarchy  Reduction (prevention of generation)  Re-use  Recovery (recycling. energy)  Disposal .

Waste management cycle .

Waste management options Mechanical/biological treatment AIM: Improvements on landfill operation  Reduction of waste volume to be landfilled  Reduction in emission potential  Facilitation of landfill operation due to reduced emissions  Reduction in leachate collection needs .

Mechanical/biological treatment scheme .

Considerations of dumping grounds  Mass balance for aerobic treatment .

 Mass balance for anaerobic treatment .Considerations of dumping grounds II.

 No unique solution exists – as criteria vary  Technical  Financial  Environmental  Social  Institutional  Political . Intermediate conclusions I.

Intermediate conclusions II.  Selection of appropriate technology:  Volume of waste  Waste composition  Market for secondary products if any  Authority and social priorities  Volume of residual material (available landfill)  Investment and operational cost  New challenges .

Nanotechnology – the promise (nanomarket growth to 1 trillion € over the next 10 years) Fields of application potential:  Membrane filtration (drinking and wastewater)  Anti-microbial nanoparticles for disinfection and microbial control  Removal of arsenic and heavy metals  Nanosensors for water quality monitoring .

Nanotechnology – a cautionary note  Risk – toxicity and exposure  Nanoexposure studies – only on inhalation  Aquatic environment ?  Time-lag (see also DDT history)  Safe particles .

Biological wastewater treatment  Suspended cell bioreactors (activated sludge systems)  Particle size distribution  Diffusion limitations  Ratio of floc and filament former bacteria  Technological functions .

A novel concept – IASON (developed by the BME) I – Intelligent A – Artificial S – Sludge O – Operated by N . Nanotechnology .

An example: the Bardenpho IASON process control process Raw Treated wastewater effluent Anaerobic Anoxic Oxic .

Wastewater bacteria on microscopic carrier materials (PVA-PAA) A 100 m .

Challenges for wastewater treatment  Adoption to changes in ever changing wastewater composition  New type of pollutants (EDS materials)  Conceptual change and novel opportunities  Professional background (R+D and education)  Design of wastewater composition .

Conceptual change needed URBAN UREA CYCLE The problem itself .

N removal NH4+ 30 g/cap/d Nitrification (oxidation to NO3-) Denitrification (reduction to N2) .

2*109 HUF (9.7 Million €/y) (0. The problem in numbers  In Budapest the annual carbamide release via urine is 22.5*109 HUF (22.7 billion HUF/y (31.5 Mio m3/d wastewater and 30 HUF/m3 N removal cost) These all together: 7.000 tons (30 g/cap/d)  Market value: 2.1 Million €/y)  Yearly expenditure on N removal 5.8 Million €/y) What separates us from this money ??? .

Wastewater composition „design” for carbamide (2 problems)  Inhibition of carbamide degradation  Removal of urea from wastewater prior to reach WWTP/or at the head of WWTP .

Removal of urea from raw wastewater  Microfiltration (should precipitable product is formed)  Ionic exchange (charged molecule)  Simple adsorbers (if polymer)  Sedimentation (if formed precipitate is large and dense enough)  FINAL RESULTS: greatly decreased N load in raw wastewater (savings on O+M cost) and marketable N fertilizer (carbamide) .

Singapore – NEWater. biogas production). EDS. reclaimed water)  The raw wastewater has to be considered as a valuable product (energy contents: MFC. cost.g. FINAL CONCLUSIONS  The classical period of wastewater treatment technology is over (LCA. sustainability)  We must not keep the usual distance from our wastewater (e. marketable compounds (carbamide)  Source control (EDS materials) ..