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CHAPTER 11

HOMEOSTASIS
DEFINITION OF HOMEOSTASIS
Process involved in maintaining
constant physical and chemical
factors in the internal environment of
an organism in a constant optimum
condition to ensure the survival of
cells.

Often involves negative feedback mechanism


Homeostasis involves keeping the
internal environment within set
ranges.
IMPORTANCE OF
HOMEOSTASIS
 Life of organism become less dependant on the external
environment
 Ensure optimum internal environment (pH, temperature, salt
concentration) for cell to function, the organism to survive
and reproduce efficiently
 Enables biological system to function efficiently and
smoothly with minimum wastage of energy
 Organisms can live in wider range of habitats
 Organisms can increase or decrease its metabolic rate suit to
its requirement
INTERNAL FACTORS THAT
REGULATES HOMEOSTATIC
MECHANISM
HOMEOSTATIC CONTROL SYSTEM
IN MAMMALS

1. Stimulus / : produce change in level of an internal factors


(variables)
2. Receptor detect changes
3. Input : info sent along AFFERENT pathway to control center
(brain)
4. Output : information sent along EFFERENT pathwat to effectors
5. Response of effector feed back to reduce the effect of original
stimulus and returns the variable to homeostatic level
HOMEOSTATIC CONTROL SYSTEM
IN MAMMALS
pore

Control systems help maintain homeostasis likesweat


...
glands

A. Sensors / receptor = gather


datasenses
B. Control Center= receives data, hair
follicle
interprets info and produce error muscle
signal sends messages out  brain
C. Communication System= delivers
messages to target organs, tissues
PNS (e.g. motor neurons)
D. Targets/ efector = respond to change. goose
bump
muscles, glands (release
hormones)
• Homeostatic mechanism are dynamic system which act to
produce a steady state  dynamic equlibrium
THERMOREGULATION OF
ENDOTHERMS
 ENDOTHERMS animals that can produce heat within the
body from respiration or basic metabolic rate
 organ that produced most heat are LIVER and
MUSCLES
 Process which animals maintain an internal temperature within
a tolerable range
- from -40˚C in artic and 50˚C in desert region
Internal metabolism and external environment are the source
of heat for thermoregulation
Heat gained = Heat lost  Constant body temperature
Heat gain and heat loss
 Heat gained :
food metabolism
absorption of solar energy (radiation,)
Conduction- from warmer ground and warmer parts of
atmosphere
 Heat lost :
 evaporation of water – sweat, exhaled air from lung
Urinating and defecating
Radiation to surrounding
Convection(transfer of heat by currents of air or water)
Conduction (transfer of energy by collision of molecule)
 Organism are classified based on heat source

  Ectotherm : body temperature depends on


temperature of environment. Many have behavioural
startegies to regulate body temperature

  Endotherm : control their body core temperature


with set range by physiological mechanisms.
Endoterm Ectoterm

Metabolic rate High Low

Heat generation Enough to keep body Too little to warm body


warm

Internal body temperature Stable, regardless of Determined by


external fluctuations environment
Three types of thermoregulation
mechanism
Behavioural Physiological Structural/Anatomical

Concious action: Changes occur : Physical feature of


 Altering posture,  Sweating organism:
orientation and
microclimate to  Vasodilation  Fur to regulates body
regulate body temperature
temperature  Lowering heart rate
 Rabbits move into  Elephant has large ears
burrow to escape heat  Raising of hair to lose heat
 Kanggaroo spread
saliva on its arms to  Camels have a very long
cool as saliva leg ?
evaporates
 Dag panting to get cool
when saliva evaporates
 Huddling/curling to
reduce heat loss
Thermoregulation: The process of maintaining a steady
body temperature under a variety of conditions.

Systems Involved:
Muscular*
Integument (skin)*
Respiratory
Circulatory
Nervous (hypothalamus in brain)
Endocrine (hormones, feedback)
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sweat pore
evaporation
Section
through skin epidermis

The sweat gland dermis


extracts sweat from the
blood and passes it up
the duct to the skin
sweat duct
surface where it
evaporates

sweat gland

blood vessel
0.25 mm

Sweat gland
7
much heat lost
Vasodilation
If the body temperature rises, the
blood vessels in the skin dilate
(become wider) and allow more blood
to flow near the surface. The heat loss
from the blood through the skin helps
cool the circulating blood

Vasoconstriction little heat lost

If the body temperature falls. The


blood vessels in the skin constrict.
Less warm blood flows near the
surface so less heat is lost

Vasoconstriction & dilation


11.2 LIVER

Hepatic artery- supplied oxygenated


blood to it
Hepatic vein- drains blood away
from liver

Outer layer : 2 layer


Peritoneum – smooth and moist
(prevents friction)
Glisson capsule- inner fibrous layer
(protects the inner cells of liver
HUMAN LIVER

 Consist of several lobes – functional unit of the liver


 Each lobes is made up of vertical cords of liver cells (HEPATOCYTES)- have
numerous mitochondria, golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum and
microvilli for absorption
 Cords of hepatocytes are separated by sinusoids- channels carrying blood
from branches of hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein into hepatic vein in
the center of the liver lobules
 Canaliculi channels carrying the bile fluid secretd by hepatocytes to bile
ducts
 Kuppffers cells phagocytic macrophages –ingest and destroy old red
blood cells and foreign matter
Carbohydrate
metabolism
Heat Protein
production metabolism

Storage of Lipid
blood metabolism

Function of
liver Formation
Breakdown
and secretion
of hormones
of bile

Storage of
Detoxificatio
fat soluble
n
molecule

Breakdown Storage of
of inorganic
haemoglobin ions