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Gp Cpt Md.

Abdus salam
What is system?

A set of things working together as parts

mechanism or interconnecting networks.
A set principles or procedures according to
which something is done.
Types of system
• Power operated:
 Hydraulic system, pneumatic system, brake system etc.

• Power assisted:
 Bicycle
Pascal’s Law
• A pressure change occurring anywhere in a
confined incompressible fluid is transmitted
throughout the fluid such that the same
change occurs everywhere.

• This principle is stated mathematically as:

ΔP= ρg(Δh)
• Here, water and air are the hydraulic fluid acting
as medium for power transmission.

• Power = W/t = F.d/t

= Pr.A.d/t = ρhg.A.d/t

• For water, ρ = 1000 kg/m3

For air, ρ = 1.225 kg/m3
Thus, water is providing more power than air.
Basic pneumatic system of an

Pneumatic systems work in a very similar way to that of

hydraulic systems.
The major difference is that in pneumatic systems, high
pressure air is used instead of hydraulic fluid.
– This is because air is much more compressible than fluid
and it is much easier to store the pressure, using
In an airframe, a pneumatic system can be used in place of a
hydraulic system


Pneumatic systems uses air as a medium to transmit energy

and do work and it has, for many years been used to operate
undercarriages, flaps, etc.
However some early applications of pneumatics have been
superseded by hydraulics or electrical, limiting its use for
services which require less power.

Working Principle

Air is a fluid like any other liquid. Therefore, Pascal’s Law is

also applicable for air.

The working principle of pneumatic system is same as of

hydraulic system.

Working principle

Force transmission through fluid (air/liquid)

Types of pneumatic system

Three types of pneumatic system:

• Backup systems
• Low pressure systems
• High pressure systems
Backup systems
• Used when, for example, the landing gear hydraulic systems fails
for a reason. A backup pneumatic system uses a storage bottle
with air and an actuator as an emergency means to extend the gear.
Low pressure systems
• These are pressurized up to about 1000 psi and use an engine
driven vane type pump and they are used to drive the aircon, door
seals, de-icer boots, mainly small low power applications.
High pressure systems

• An engine driven compressor feeds air via an unloading valve tot the
system keeping the pressure around 3000 psi, but this may vary from
aircraft manufacturer to another. There will usually also be a ground
valve on the aircraft to enable the system to be pressurized when the
main engines are not running.
• Moisture separator, dryer (desiccant) and filter is used to keep the air
clean and free from water before it is stored in the high pressure
• Pressurized air at 3000 psi is reduced before it is routed to valves and
actuators, this reduced pressure is monitored by gauges. Actuators can
be a single acting device where air moves them one way and a strong
spring inside pushes the piston actuator back, or can they be double
acting. These are sometimes used with flap extension systems.
Advantage of Pneumatics

Infinite availability of the source

Air is the most important thing in the pneumatic system, and it is
available in the world around us in unlimited quantities at all times
and places.
Easily channeled
Air is a substance that is easily passed or move from one place to
another through a small pipe.
Temperature is flexible
Air can be used flexibly at various temperatures. Though an
equipment is designed for specific circumstances, but in quite
extreme conditions, the air was still able to work.
Advantage of Pneumatics

The air can be loaded more safely as it is not flammable and
short circuit does not occur. Thus use of pneumatic system
facilitate a safe operating environment.

Light Weight
As air is used in pneumatic system so it facilitate a big weight

Sources of Pneumatic Power

There are three sources of pneumatic power:

Three sources of pneumatic power provide the muscle or means

by which the pneumatic system is able to satisfy the aircraft
demands. These are
GPU (Ground Power Unit)

APU (Auxiliary Power Unit)


Sources of Pneumatic Power

GPU (Ground Power Unit):

A Ground Power Unit (GPU) is needed to provide DC and/
or AC power supply for aircraft on the ground.

They are used to start the engine as well as for the on-board
power supply.

The GPUs are operated in commercial as well as in military


Sources f Pneumatic Power

APU (Auxiliary Power Unit)

An APU is a device on a aircraft that provides energy for
functions other than propulsion.
They are commonly found on large aircraft
The primary purpose of an aircraft APU is to provide power to
start the main engines
Generally the APU is started, by a battery

Sources f Pneumatic Power

APU (Auxiliary Power Unit)

Some APUs are also connected to a hydraulic pump, allowing
crews to operate hydraulic equipment (such as flight controls or
flaps) prior to engine start.
This function can also be used, on some aircraft, as a backup in
flight in case of engine or hydraulic failure.
Aircraft with APUs can also accept electrical and pneumatic
power from ground equipment when an APU has failed or is not
to be used.
Some airports reduce the use of APUs due to noise pollution,
and ground power is to be used when possible
Sources of Pneumatic Power

Bleed air in gas turbine engines is compressed air that is taken
from the compressor stage of the engine, which is upstream of
the fuel burning section.
In modern airliner engines, two regulator valves are (Hi stage
and Low stage) turn on and off automatically and are controlled
by at least two air supply and cabin pressure controllers
(ASCPCs) which open and close appropriate valves.
Engine Bleed Air comes from the high stage or low stage
engine compressor section.

Three Major Uses of Aircraft Pneumatic Systems

These three sources of pneumatic power provide the muscle or

means by which the pneumatic system is able to satisfy the
aircraft demands. In a simplified form the pneumatic system may
be represented by the interrelationships shown in Figure below.

Three Major Uses of Aircraft Pneumatic Systems

Ice protection :
the provision of hot air to provide anti icing of engine nacelles
and the wing, tailplane or fin leading edges
ECS[Environmental Control Systems] and cooling:
the provision of the main air for environmental temperature
control and cooling
Pressurization :
the provision of air by which the aircraft may be pressurized,
giving the crew and passengers a more comfortable operating
Simplified Pneumatic System

Simplified Pneumatic System

Bleed air from the engines is passed through a Pressure-

Reducing Shut-Off Valve (PRSOV) which serves the function
of controlling and, when required, shutting off the engine
bleed air supply. Air downstream of the PRSOV may be used
in a number of ways:
• By means of a cross flow Shut-Off Valve (SOV) the system
may supply air to the opposite side of the aircraft during
engine start or if the opposite engine is inoperative for any
• A SOV from the APU may be used to isolate the APU air
Simplified Pneumatic System

• SOVs provide isolation as appropriate to the left and right air

conditioning packs and pressurization systems

• Additional SOVs provide the means by which the supply to left

and rightwing anti-icing systems may be shut off in the event
that these functions are not required

Disadvantages of Pneumatics

However, the compressibility of air can be a major disadvantage,

as pneumatic systems lack the instant response that a simple
hydraulic system can provide.

This compressibility also means that the position of systems

needing partial movements, such as control surfaces, cannot be
controlled with any degree of accuracy.

Disadvantage of Pneumatics

Another major disadvantage of using pneumatic systems is the

relative inefficiency in transmitting power in comparison with
hydraulic systems

This is because energy is lost in compressing the air, a problem

that does not occur with hydraulic fluid.

Because of these major disadvantages, many aircraft are not

fitted with a pneumatic system.