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ESTERS

• Non-hydrocarbon organic compound


containing C, H and O.
• General formula CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1 ,
n=0,1,2,3,…and m=1,2,3,..
• Functional group is _COO (carboxylate group)
• An ester is the product of an esterification
reaction between a carboxylic acid and an
alcohol.
• A molecule of water is eliminated while a
carboxylic acid combines with an alcohol to form
an ester.

Naming Esters
• Consists of two parts:
– The alcohol part is given first ; the name of
the alkyl group (-CmH2m+1) and followed by
the name of the acid part; the carboxylate
anion (CnH2n+1-), the –oic acid is replace by
-oate.
Example:
CH3COOH + CH3OH CH3COOCH3 +
H2O
Ethanoic acid react with methanol produced
methyl ethanoate and water.
COMPLETE THIS TABLE

Carboxylic Molecular
Alcohol Structural formula
acid formula

HCOOH C2H5OH

C2H5COOH C2H5OH

C3H7COOH C3H7OH

C3H7COOH C2H5OH
Formation of Esters
• The reaction between a carboxylic acid and an
alcohol
• Reaction : Esterification
• Catalyst : Concentrated sulphuric acid
CH3COOH + CH3OH CH3COOCH3 + H2O
A molecule of ethanoic acid combines with a
molecule of methanol form a molecule of
methyl ethanoate and a molecule of water is
eliminated.
Discussion
1. a) CH3COOH(l) + C2H5OH(l) CH3COOC2H5(l) + H2O(l)
b) Ethyl ethanoate
2. As a catalyst to speed up the reaction.
3. To get uniform heating of the mixture. It also provides a
higher temperature for the mixture to react faster and to
distill the product.
4. The distillate is mixed and shaken well with excess water in a
separating funnel.
The aqueous layer formed which contains the impurity
(ethanol) is removed. Then, the remaining layer is shaken
with sodium carbonate, Na2CO3 solution to remove the
ethanoic acid.
The aqueous layer formed is then removed. Finally, the
remaining layer is dried using a suitable drying agent and
then filtered.
Physical Properties of Esters

• Sweet smell/fruity smell


• Colorless liquid
• Volatile
• Slightly soluble in water but readily
dissolve in organic solvents.
Natural Sources of Esters
• Found in fruits and flower
- jasmine owes its smell to benzyl
ethanoate, CH3COOCH2C6H5
- pineapple gets its odour from ethyl
butanoate, C3H7COOC2H5
• Animal fats (milk) and waxes are solid
ester.
• Vegetable oils are liquid ester.
Uses of Esters
• Food and drug preservative – prevent growth of
microorganism such as molds and yeast
• Preparation of cosmetics and perfumes
• Food additives to improve the flavour and smell
• Production of soaps and detergents
• Production of polyester
• Fats – storage reserve of energy
• Wax (leaves) – help to prevent dehydration and
attack by microorganism