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Carboxylic acid

• Non hydrocarbon
• Functional group= carboxyl group,-COOH
• -COOH, use to determine the Chemical
reaction
Naming the carboxylic acid

• Longest chain  including carbon in


carboxyl group
• Numbering longest chaincarbon in
carboxyl group always be no 1.
• Example
CH3-CH2-CH-COOH
|
CH3
No of carbon, n Structure,Name
n= 0 H-COOH , methanoic acid
n=1 CH3COOH, ethanoic acid
n=2 CH3CH2COOH, propanoic acid
n=3 CH3CH2CH2COOH, butanoic acid
n=4 CH3CH2CH2CH2COOH, pentanoic acid
Persoalan

• Bagaimana asid etanoik CH3COOH


dihasilkan dalam makmal?

• Bagaimana dengan sifat fizik asid etanoik,


iaitu, warna, bau, takat didih, keadaan
fizikal pada suhu bilik dan keterlarutan
dalam air?
Physical properties

• Low molecular mass Colourless liquid at


room temp
Larger molecular mass (>10 C)  wax-like
solid
• Has smell of vinegar/sharp
• Solubility
• <4 C--Very soluble in water
• >5 C –solubility decrease
Reaction of ethanoic acid
with a metal
Procedure :
1. About 2cm3 of dilute ethanoic acid is placed in a test
tube.
2. A piece of clean magnesium ribbon is dropped into the
test tube.
3. The test tube is closed to collect the gas liberated. the
gas is tested with a lighted wooden splinter.
4. Steps 1 to 3 are repeated using zinc to replace
magnesium.
Metal Observation
Magnesium •The Mg ribbon dissolves to form a
colorless solution.
•Effervescence occurs.
•The colorless gas produced burns
with a ‘pop’ sound.
Zinc •The zinc powder dissolves to form a
colorless solution.
•Effervescence occurs.
•The colorless gas produced burns
with a ‘pop’ sound.
Discussion
1. Magnesium reacts with dilute ethanoic acid to
produce magnesium ethanoate and hydrogen gas.
2CH3COOH(aq) + Mg(s) Mg(CH3COO)2(aq) + H2(g)

2. Zinc reacts with dilute ethanoic acid to produced


zinc ethanoate and hydrogen gas.
2CH3COOH(aq) + Zn(s) Zn(CH3COO)2(aq) + H2(g)
Reaction of ethanoic acid with a
base
Procedure :
1. About 2 cm3 of dilute ethanoic acid is placed in a test
tube.
2. About 2 cm3 of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide is
added to the acid and then the mixture is shaken.
3. The mixture is poured into an evaporating dish and
heated to dryness.
4. The solid residue is examined.
5. Steps 1 to 4 repeated using one spatulaful of
copper(II) oxide powder to replace 2 cm3 of sodium
hydroxide solution.
Base Observation

Sodium hydroxide •A colorless solution is


solution formed.
•The residue formed is a
white solid.

Copper (II) oxide •The black powder dissolves


to form a blue solution.
•The residue formed is a
blue solid.
Discussion

1. Sodium hydroxide solution neutralises ethanoic


acid to form a salt, which is sodium ethanoate
and water.
CH3COOH + NaOH NaCH3COO + H2O

2. Ethanoic acid dissolves copper (II) oxide to


produce copper (II) ethanoate and water.
2CH3COOH + CuO Cu(CH3COO)2 + H2O
Reaction of ethanoic acid with
a metal carbonate
Procedure:
1. About 2 cm3 of dilute ethanoic acid is palced in a test
tube.
2. One spatulaful of calcium carbonate is added to the
acid.
3. The test tube is closed with a stopper fitted with a
delivery tube dipping into lime water. Any change to
the lime water is noted.
4. Steps 1 to 3 are repeated using iron (III) carbonate to
replace calcium carbonate.
Metal carbonate Observation
•The white powder dissolves to
form a colorless solution.
Calcium
•Effervescence occurs
carbonate
•The colorless gas produced
turns lime water milky.
•The reddish-brown powder
dissolves to form a brown
Iron (III) solution.
carbonate •Effervescence occurs
•The colorless gas produced
turns lime water milky.
Discussion
1. Calcium carbonate reacts with dilute ethanoic acid
to produced calcium ethanoate, water and carbon
dioxide.
2CH3COOH + CaCO3 Ca(CH3COO)2 + H2O + CO2

2. Iron (III) carbonate reacts with dilute ethanoic


acid to produced iron (III) ethanoate, water and
carbon dioxide
6CH3COOH + Fe2(CO3)3 2Fe(CH3COO)3 + 3H2O + 3CO2
Reaction of ethanoic acid
with alcohol
Procedure:
1. About 2 cm3 of glacial ethanoic acid is poured into boiling tube.
2. About 2 cm3 of absolute ethanol is added to the acid. The boiling
tube is shaken to mix the liquid well.
3. A dropper is used to add about 1 cm3 of concentrated sulphuric
acid to the mixture. The boiling tube is shaken well.
4. The mixture is carefully heated over a small flame . The mixture is
allowed to boil gently for about 2 to 3 minutes.
5. A beaker is half-filled with some water.
6. The content of boiling tube are poured into the beaker.
7. Any change is observed.
8. Steps 1 to 7 is repeated using butan-1-ol to replace ethanol.