You are on page 1of 68

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS

 MAIN COMPONENTS:
 INLET PIPE
 IMPELLER DISC AND
IMPELLER
 DIFFUSER
 CASING
 COLLECTION CHAMBER
 OUTLET PIPE
WORKING PRINCIPLE
 THE GAS ENTERS THE IMPELLER EYE OF A
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR IN AN AXIAL
DIRECTION WITH ABSOLUTE V1. THE GAS THEN
FLOWS RADIALLY THROUGH THE IMPELLER
PASSAGE DUE TO CENTRIFUGAL FORCE. THE
IMPELLER ROTATES AT A VERY HIGH SPEED
(20000 TO 30000 RPM). ENERGY IS IMPARTED TO
THE GAS BY THE ROTATING BLADES WHERE IT
IS CONVERTED INTO KINETIC ENERGY AS IT
MOVES FROM RADIUS r1 TO r2, ALONG WITH A
SMALL PRESSURE RISE DURING ITS RADIAL
FLOW IN THE IMPELLER.
WORKING PRINCIPLE
 THE GAS LEAVING FROM THE IMPELLER
BLADES IS TURNED THROUGH AN ANGLE β2,
AND LEAVES WITH AN ABSOLUTE VELOCITY V2
AT AN ANGLE α2. THE GAS THEN ENTERS THE
DIFFUSER. THE DIFFUSER SURROUNDING THE
IMPELLER CONVERTS THE K.E. INTO PRESSURE
ENERGY. HENCE THERE IS RISE IN STATIC
PRESSURE OF THE GAS. GAS THEN ENTERS
THE CASING, AND THE OUTLET PIPE, WHERE
SOME MORE K.E. IS CONVERTED INTO
PRESSURE ENERGY.
WORKING PRINCIPLE
 SINCE THE IMPELLERS ARE HIGHLY STRESSED,
STRAIGHT VANES ARE NORMALLY PREFERRED.
CURVED VANES WOULD STRAIGHTEN OUT
UNDER THE ACTION OF THE CENTRIFUGAL
FORCE INVOLVED WHICH IS CONSIDERABLE.
CHOICE OF RADIAL VANES LARGELY
DETERMINES THE PRESSURE RISE THAT WILL
BE DIVIDED APPROXIMATELY EQUALLY
BETWEEN THE IMPELLER & DIFFUSER.
STATIC & STAGNATION VALUES
 STEADY STATE EQUATION
u1 + P1v1 + V12/2 = u2 + P2v2 1 Q=0 2
+ V22/2
T2, P2, V2
 SINCE ENTHALPY h = u +Pv
 h1 + V12/2 = h2 + V22/2 T1, P1, V1

 CpT1 + V12/2 =CpT2 + V22/2


 CpT + V2/2 = CONSTANT
 Here temperature T is called
the static temperature or the
temperature of the air
measured by the
thermometer when the
thermometer is moving at
velocity of air
STATIC & STAGNATION VALUES
 If the moving air is brought to rest under reversible
conditions, the total kinetic energy of the air is
converted into heat energy, increasing the
temperature and pressure of the air. This temperature
and pressure of the air is known as STAGNATION or
TOTAL HEAD temperature and pressure. The total
head temperature and pressure are denoted by T0 &
P0 respectively CpT + V2/2 = CpT0 ;
CpT0 – CpT = V2/2 ; (h0 –h) = V2/2
 P0/P =[T0/T]γ/(γ-1)
PROCESS ON h-s DIAGRAM
p02 p03
02 03 Final stage in
p3 collector

V32/2 Since the diffusion


03’ process is not
3 p2 accomplished
K.E. leaving V22/2 isentropically,
the impeller
Diffuser 2-3 process (2-3)
results and some
kinetic energy
Isentropic p01 remains at diffuser
compression (velocity V3), the
2 static delivery
p1 pressure at point 3
2’ Impeller 1-2
is p3. the final
stage collector,
Ambient has a static
pressure 01 pressure p3, low
of air kinetic energy
V12/2 Accelerating nozzle, pressure drop, (V32/2) and a
change in enthalpy leads stagnation
pressure p03 which
1 to increase in kinetic energy
is less than p02
since diffusion
process is
incomplete
PRESSURE RISE
Converts
High velocity
Of the air
Leaving the
Impeller into
Pressure by
Accelerating Pressure
Slowing it
Nozzle: Increases
down
Due to
Velocity Centripetal 3
increases Acceleration
With Imparted By
Decrease in Impeller
p Pressure

2
0
Diffuser

Impeller
Inlet
1
casing

channel
WORK DONE
 VELOCITY OF THE GAS AT THE
INLET IS AXIAL ; α1 = 90
β1
DEGREES; Vw1 = 0 ; V1 = Vf1
 AC = u2 = Vw2 without slip ; ΔACE – Vr1
V1
without slip
 BD = u2 with slip; ΔBDE –
with slip u1
 AB = SLIP = Vw2 – Vw2’ ; BC =
Vw2’ INLET VELOCITY Δ
 The relative velocity of the gas Vr1 at A B C D
the inlet makes an angle β1, with the α2 α2’ β2 β2’
direction of motion. The gas flows V2’ Vf2= Vr2
through the impeller and is turned
through an angle 90 degrees and V2 Vr2’
ideally, the outlet is in radial direction
i.e. the absolute velocity at exit V2 ,
is such that its whirl component is E
equal to u2. OUTLET VELOCITY Δ
WORK DONE
 β2 = 90 degrees ; u2 = Vw2 ; Vr2 = Vf2 = ideal case
 Euler’s equation Work Done = (Vw1u1 +-Vw2u2)/g
 Since it is a power absorbing machine
 W.D = (Vw2u2 -Vw1u1)/g ; Vw1 = 0 ; W.D= u2Vw2/g
 W.D = u22/g ; since Vw2 = u2 or W.D = Vw22/g
WORK DONE
 Work done in an adiabatic process INLET VELOCITY Δ
Δh0= u2Vw2 =u22*[Vw2/u2]
 From outlet velocity Δ: V1 = Vf1 =Vf2 = Vr1
V1= Vf1
u1*tan β1 (for constant radial velocity)
β1
 From outlet velocity Δ :
u2=Vw2+Vf2*cotβ2 ; u1
u2 - Vf2* cotβ2 =Vw2
u2
 1-Vf2/u2 *cotβ2 = Vw2/u2 Vw2
α2 β2
 W.D = u22 *[1-Vf2/u2*cotβ2]
Vf2
 Since V2/sinβ2 =u2/sin(α2+β2)
 Vw2 = V2*cosα2 V2 Vr2

 Vw2/u2=sinβ2cosα2/(sinα2cosβ2+cosα2sinβ2)
 Vw2/u2= tanβ2/(tanα2 + tanβ2)
OUTLET VELOCITY Δ
WORK DONE
 Vw2/u2= tanβ2/(tanα2 + tanβ2)= [1-Vf2/u2 *cotβ2 ]
 W.D = u22 *Vw2/u2
ENTHALPY- ENTROPY DIAGRAM
 DURING THE COMPRESSION PROCESS A CONSIDERABLE
AMOUNT OF ENERGY SUPPLIED TO THECOMPRESSOR IS
WASTED IN CHURNING UP THE WORKING FLUID.
 THIS ENERGY DOES NOT CONTRIBUTE TO THE
PRESSURE RISE BUT IS CONVERTED INTO HEAT BY
FRICTION.
 THE OUTCOME IS THAT THE TEMPERATURE OF THE
WORKING FLUID IS HIGHER AT THE END OF THE
COMPRESSION THAN IT WOULD HAVE BEEN HAD THE
PROCESS BEEN FULLY AND TRULY ISENTROPIC.
 HENCE MORE WORK INPUT TO THE COMPRESSOR IS
REQUIRED AND THEREBY THE EFFICIENCY OF THE
COMPRESSOR COMES INTO PICTURE.
ENTHALPY- ENTROPY DIAGRAM
p02

p2
02

V22/(2Cp)

2 p01
p1
h 02’
Actual process
of compression Wa

Wisen 2’
Isentropic
process
01
V12/(2Cp)
1

s
COMPRESSOR EFFICIENCY
p02
02
Irreversible Process
02’ p2

FINAL STATE
2 p01
h
2’

p1
01
Reversible
process
INITIAL STATE
1

s
COMPRESSOR EFFICIENCY
 COMPRESSION EFFICIENCY BASED ON TOTAL
TO TOTAL ηct-t = (h02’ – h01)/(h02- h01) = (T02’ –
T01)/(T02-T01) based on stagnation properties at entry & exit
 ηct-t = Isentropic compression work / Actual
compression work
 COMPRESSION EFFICIENCY BASED ON TOTAL
TO STATIC ηct-s = (h2’ – h01)/(h02-h01)
 COMPRESSION EFFICIENCY BASED ON STATIC
TO TOTAL ηcs-t = (h02’ – h1)/(h02-h01)
 COMPRESSION EFFICIENCY BASED ON STATIC
TO STATIC ηcs-s = (h2’ – h1)/(h02-h01)
Based on static properties at entry & exit
COMPRESSOR EFFICIENCY
 STAGNATION PRESSURE RATIO pr0 = p02’/p01
=p02/p01
 STATIC PRESSURE RATIO pr =p2’/p1 = p2/p1
 pr0 = p02/p01 =[T02’/T01]γ/(γ-1)
 T02’ = T01 * (pr0)(γ-1)/γ ; T02’ - T01 = T01 * (pr0)(γ-1)/γ -
T01
 T02’ - T01 = T01 * { (pr0)(γ-1)/γ – 1 }
 ηct-t = (h02’ – h01)/(h02-h01) = (T02’ – T01)/(T02-T01)
= T01 * { (pr0)(γ-1)/γ – 1 }*cp /[cp(T02-T01)]
 ηct-t = T01 * { (pr0)(γ-1)/γ – 1 }*cp /Wa
 Wa= T01 * { (pr0)(γ-1)/γ – 1 }*cp / ηct-t
COMPRESSOR EFFICIENCY
 If gas velocities at the entry & exit of a stage are
almost same and can be neglected
 Wa = (h02 – h01) = (h2 – h1) = cp(T2 – T1)
 Wisen s-s = (h2’ – h1) = cp(T2’ – T1)
 ηcs-s = (h2’ – h1)/(h02-h01) = cp(T2’ – T1)/ [cp(T2 – T1)]
 ηcs-s = (T2’ – T1)/ [(T2 – T1)]
 T2’ - T1 = T1 * { (pr0)(γ-1)/γ – 1 }
 ηcs-s = T1 * { (pr0)(γ-1)/γ – 1 }/[(T2 – T1)]
 Wa = cp (T2 – T1) = T1 *cp { (pr0)(γ-1)/γ – 1 }/ ηcs-s
POLYTROPIC EFFICIENCY
 A compressor stage can be viewed as made up of an
infinite number of small stages. To account for a
compression in an infinitesimal stage, poltropic
efficiency is defined for an elemental compression
process. 2 P2
Small Compressor Stage
P + dP
2’
h P
dT
P1
dT’

Polytrophic Efficiency ηp = dT’/dT


1

s
POLYTROPIC EFFICIENCY
 For an isentropic process, the relationship between
pressure & temperature is given by :
 p2/p1= [V1/V2]γ = [ρ2/ρ1] γ = [ T2/T1]γ/(γ-1)
 T/P (γ-1)/γ ; (T+dT’) -T = T [ {(p+dp)/p}(γ-1)/γ -1 ]
 ηp = (T+dT’ –T)/(T+dT – T)
 dT/T = [(1+dp/p)(γ-1)/γ – 1]/ ηp
 Ignoring higher order terms dT/T = [(1+ (γ-1)/γ dp/p]/ ηp
 Integrating between limits of full compression from P1 to P2 and
taking γ as constant
 ln(T2/T1) = 1/ηp *[(γ-1)/γ *ln(P2/P1)
 T2/T1 =[P2/P1]1/ηp *(γ-1)/γ =[P2/P1]ε/ηp ; ε = (γ-1)/γ
POLYTROPIC EFFICIENCY
 If the reversible adiabatic compression process is
assumed to be equivalent to a polytrophic process
with polytropic index n, the following relationship
between temperature and pressure will exist:
 (T2/T1)= (P2/P1)(n-1)/n
 1/ηp *(γ-1)/γ = (n-1)/n
 ηp = (γ-1)/γ * n/(n-1)
 So polytropic efficiency is also called as small
stage or infinitesimal stage efficiency.
FINITE STAGE EFFICIENCY
 Taking static value of temperature & pressure, stage efficiency is
defined as ηs = (T2’ – T1)/(T2 – T1)
 The finite stage or stage efficiency can be expressed in terms of
small stage or polytropic efficiency
 (T2’ – T1) = T1 (T2’ /T1 – 1) = T1[(P2/P1)(γ-1)/γ -1)]
 And T2 – T1 = T1[T1/T2 – 1] = T1 [ (P2/P1)1/ηp *(γ-1)/γ - 1)]
 ηs= [(P2/P1)(γ-1)/γ -1)]/[ (P2/P1)1/ηp *(γ-1)/γ - 1)]
 For multistage compressor with a constant stage pressure ratio,
the overall pressure ratio is given by:
 Pr0 =PN+1/P1 = (P2/P1)N ; where N is the number of stages and
PN+1 is the pressure at the end of Nth stage
 For multistage compression ηs is replaced by ηcs-s of the
compressor and Pr by the overall pressure ratio Pr0
 ηcs-s= [(Pr0)(γ-1)/γ -1)]/[ (Pr0)1/ηp *(γ-1)/γ - 1)]
PREHEAT FACTOR IN COMPRESSORS

 Consider a two stage compressor working between P01 and P02.


in isentropic flow, the outlet conditions of the gas for the first &
second stage are at 02s and 03s respectively, whereas the
actual outlet conditions are 02 & 03 corresponding to first stage
& second stage respectively.
 If the stage efficiencies were the same, the total actual work
input to the different individual stages would be
 W = 1/ηs[Ws1 + Ws2]= 1/ηs[(h02s – h01) + (h03s – h02)]
 W = 1/ηs[∑W si] for stage 1 to 2
 For n-stages the work for individual stage will be summed up &
divided by stage efficiency to get the actual work done.
N
1
W
s
W
i 1
si
PREHEAT FACTOR IN COMPRESSORS

P03
03
03s
h
P02

03ss P01
02

02s

01

s
PREHEAT FACTOR IN COMPRESSORS

 Now consider a single stage compressor raising the fluid


pressure from P01 to P03. the actual work input that would be
supplied is W = 1/ηcs-s*Ws ; ηcs-s is the overall isentropic
compressor efficiency and Ws is the isentropic work
 Ws = h03ss – h01
 Actual work done W = h03 – h01; this is same for both single
stage & multi stage compressors.

s W si
 i 1
cs  s Ws
PREHEAT FACTOR IN COMPRESSORS

 Since the constant pressure lines diverge in the direction of


increasing entropy on h-s diagram, the isentropic enthalpy rise
across each stage increases even for a constant stagnation pressure
rise ΔP0 across each stage. Then, the sum of the stage isentropic
enthalpy rise is greater than the isentropic enthalpy rise in a single
stage compression.
 For two stage compressor 2
 (h02s – h01 ) + (h03s – h02) > (h03ss – h01)  Wsi Ws
i 1
N

W si
i 1
1 FOR N STAGES
Ws
Ws
N
  cs  s /  s  P.F PREHEAT FACTOR < 1

W
i 1
si
PREHEAT FACTOR IN COMPRESSORS

 The pre-heat factor is less than unity.


 ηcs-s/ηs < 1
 The overall isentropic compressor efficiency ηcs-s is
less than the stage efficiencies ηs
 For the first stage compression, state 02 may be
obtained after an ideal compression from 01 to 02,
followed by “PREHEATING” of the fluid from state
02s to 02 at constant pressure (T02 > T02s)
 This inherent thermodynamic effect that reduces the
efficiency of the multistage compressor is called the
PREHEAT EFFECT.
PRESSURE RISE
 ηct-t = (h02’ – h01)/(h02-h01)=(T02’ – T01)/(T02-T01)
 (T02-T01)=(T02’ – T01)/ ηct-t
 W.D = h02 –h01 = Δh0 =cp(T02-T01) =u22/g
 (T02’ – T01) = u22/(cpg) * ηct-t
 For isentropic process p02/p01 =[T02’ /T01]γ/(γ-1)
 p02/p01 =[T02’ /T01]γ/(γ-1)= [(T02’ – T01 + T01)/T01] γ/(γ-1)
 Stagnation pressure rise between the impeller &
the exit Pr1 = p02/p01 = [(T02’ – T01 )/T01 + 1] γ/(γ-1)
 Pr1 = p02/p01 = [u22/(cpg) * ηct-t / T01 + 1] γ/(γ-1)
 if V1 = V2 ; pR = p2/p1 =[u22/(cpg) * ηct-t/T1 + 1] γ/(γ-1)
STAGE PRESSURE RISE
 Δh0 = (Δp0)s/ρ for isentropic compression process
 (Δp0)s= Δh0ρ = ρu2Vw2/g = ρu22/g [ 1 – Vf2/u2 cotβ2]
 Static pressure rise (Δpr) through the impeller is due
to the change in the centrifugal energy and the
diffusion of the relative flow.
 (p2 –p1) = (Δpr) = ρ/(2g)[u22 – u12] + ρ/(2g)[Vr12 – Vr22]
 (Δp0)s = ρ/(2g)[u22 – u12] + ρ/(2g)[Vr12 – Vr22] +
ρ/(2g)[V22 – V12]
 (Δp0)s = (p2 –p1) + ρ/(2g)[V22 – V12]
 (Δp0)s = (Δpr) + ρ/(2g)[V22 – V12]
EULER EQUATION
 WORK DONE = (Vw1u1 – Vw2u2)/g J/kg
 Vw2u2 > Vw1u1 BLOWER OR COMPRESSOR
 Vw1u1 > Vw2u2 TURBINE
 W.D/ unit mass flow rate =[(V12 – V22) + (u12-u22) + (Vr22 –
Vr12)]/(2g)
 (V12 – V22)/(2g) change in absolute kinetic energy; leads to
change in dynamic head or dynamic pressure.
 (u12-u22)/(2g) change of centrifugal energy of fluid in motion ;
causes a change in static head of the fluid through rotor.
 (Vr22 – Vr12)/(2g) change in relative kinetic energy due to
change in relative velocity; causes a change in static head o the
fluid through rotor.
PRESSURE COEFFICIENT
 LOADING COEFFICIENT: ψ = W/u22
 It is a measure of pressure raising capacities of various
types of centrifugal compressor impellers of different sizes
running at different speeds.
 ψ = Vw2/u2 or ψ = 1 – [Vr2/u2] cotβ2 ; ψ = [1 – φ2cotβ2]
 Φ2 – Flow coefficient = [Vr2/u2]
 This expression gives the theoretical performance
characteristics of different geometries
Φ – ψ PLOT

Forward Tipped

Radial Tipped
1
Pressure
Coefficient
ψ
Backward Tipped

Flow Coefficient
φ
DEGREE OF REACTION
 R = (Pressure rise in rotor (impeller))/(Pressure rise in the stage)
 R = (Δpr)/(Δp0)s
 (Δpr) = ρ/(2g)[u22 – u12] + ρ/(2g)[Vr12 – Vr22]
 From inlet velocity triangle Vr12 – u12 = V12
 (Δpr) = ρ/(2g) * [ u22 – Vr22 + V12] = ρ/(2g) * [u22 – Vr22
+ Vf22] ; since α1 = 90 degrees , V1 = Vf1 = Vf2
 From exit velocity triangle Vr22 – Vf22 = [ Vw2 – u2]2
 u22 – Vr22 + Vf22 = 2u2Vw2 – Vw22
 (Δpr) =ρ/(2g) * [ 2u2Vw2 – Vw22]
 R = {ρ/(2g) * [ 2u2Vw2 – Vw22]}/{ρ/(2g) * Vw2u2}
 R= 1 – Vw2/(2u2)
DEGREE OF REACTION
 BACKWARD CURVED VANES (β2 < 90 )
 Vw2/u2 < 1 ; R < 1
 RADIAL BLADES (β2 = 90 )
 Vw2 = u2 ; R =0.5
 FORWARD CURVED VANES (β2 > 90 )
 Vw2>u2 ; R < 0.5
DEGREE OF REACTION
 DEGREE OF REACTION R = Static component of energy
transfer/(Dynamic + Static) components of energy transfer
 R = S /(D + S) ; S = RD/(1-R)
 If β2 = 90 degrees ; R=0.5 ; S = D; Static pressure
rise in the rotor = change in absolute K.E.
 When R =0 ; there is no change of static pressure
possible inside the machine i.e. the machine is
having impulse blade.
PROCESS ON h-s DIAGRAM
p02 p03
02 03 Final stage in
p3 collector

V32/2 Since the diffusion


03’ process is not
3 p2 accomplished
K.E. leaving V22/2 isentropically,
the impeller
Diffuser 2-3 process (2-3)
results and some
kinetic energy
Isentropic p01 remains at diffuser
compression (velocity V3), the
2 static delivery
p1 pressure at point 3
2’ Impeller 1-2
is p3. the final
stage collector,
Ambient has a static
pressure 01 pressure p3, low
of air kinetic energy
V12/2 Accelerating nozzle, pressure drop, (V32/2) and a
change in enthalpy leads stagnation
pressure p03 which
1 to increase in kinetic energy
is less than p02
since diffusion
process is
incomplete
OVERALL PRESSURE RATIO
 Pr0 = overall pressure ratio = P03/P01
 ηct-to = overall total – to –total compressor efficiency
 ηct-to = (Total isentropic enthalpy rise between the
inlet & exit)/Actual enthalpy rise between the same
total pressure limits)
 ηct-to =(h03’ – h01)/(h03 – h01) =(T03’ – T01)/(T03 – T01)
 ηct-to = T01(T03’ /T01 – 1)*1/(T03 – T01)
 (T03’ /T01 – 1) = ηct-to*(T03 – T01)/ T01
 p03/p01 = [T03’ /T01]γ/(γ-1)
 Pr0 = p03/p01 =[1 + ηct-to*(T03 – T01)/ T01] γ/(γ-1)
OVERALL PRESSURE RATIO
 We know that no work is done during the diffuser
process (2 to 3 )
 Δh0 = h02 – h01 = cp *(T02 –T01) = cp(T03 – T01) = u22/g
 Since Pr0 = p03/p01 =[1 + ηct-to*(T03 – T01)/ T01] γ/(γ-1)
 Hence Pr0 = p03/p01 =[1 + ηct-to*u22/(gcp T01)] γ/(γ-1)
This equation can be used to calculate the stagnation
pressure ratio between impeller inlet to diffuser outlet
 Pr1 = p02/p01 = [u22/(cpg) * ηct-t / T01 + 1] γ/(γ-1)
The above earlier derived equation can be used to
calculate the stagnation pressure ratio between the
impeller inlet & impeller exit
SLIP FACTOR
 Due to the large amount of mass of air (gas) flowing
through the impeller, it has certain inertia. Due to the
formation of eddies, the velocity of whirl at the exit
reduces, and the flow is turned through an angle less
than 90 degrees compared to 90 degrees in case of
an ideal condition. This effect is known as ‘SLIP’
SLIP
V2 D
B IDEAL VEL.TRIANGLE WITHOUT SLIP

Vr2 BACKWARD CURVED VANES β2<90 degrees


V2’
Vr2’
W.D = Δh0 =u2Vw2/g
VEL. Δ WITH SLIP
Vf2 β2’ (without slip)
β2
W.D = Δh0 =σu2Vw2/g
A Vw2’ C (with slip)
Vw2
u2
SLIP FACTOR

W.D = Δh0 =u2Vw2/g = u22/g (without slip)


W.D = Δh0 =σu22/g (with slip)

SLIP
B D
V2
VEL. Δ WITHOUT SLIP
V2’ Vr2 =Vf2
Vr2’
VEL. Δ WITH SLIP
Vf2’
β2= 90 β2’
RADIAL CURVED VANES β2 = 90
Vw2’ C
u2 = Vw2
SLIP FACTOR
 σ = Vw2/u2
 W.D = σu22/g = Δh0

Stagnation pressure ratio between the impeller inlet &


impeller exit
 Pr1 = p02/p01 = [u22σ/(cpg) * ηct-t / T01 + 1] γ/(γ-1)

Stagnation pressure ratio between impeller inlet to


diffuser outlet
 Pr0 = p03/p01 =[1 + ηct-to*σu22/(gcp T01)] γ/(γ-1)
POWER FACTOR
 Some of the power supplied by the impeller is used in
overcoming losses which have a breaking effect such
as disc friction or windage and the power input is
therefore modified by a factor φ
 W.D = σφu22/g = Δh0
 Pr1 = p02/p01 = [φu22σ/(cpg) * ηct-t / T01 + 1] γ/(γ-1)

 Pr0 = p03/p01 =[1 + ηct-to*σφu22/(gcp T01)] γ/(γ-1)


LIMITING INLET VELOCITY
 INDUCER: The inducer or the entry section of the
impeller has a pronounced effect on the impeller
performance and hence on the overall compressor
efficiency.
 The tip of the inducer eye is the point where the highest
inlet relative Mach number occurs. Generally the eye root
diameter is taken as small as possible, limiting value being
the shaft diameter & bearing arrangement.
 PREWHIRL OR INLET GUIDE VANES: To further
reduce the Mach Number. But there will be a reduction in
the energy transfer. This type of technique is usually used
in high-pressure ratio compressors, where the inlet Mach
number exceeds unity and shock waves reduce the impeller
speed.
LIMITING INLET VELOCITY
 It is usual to shape the impeller blades at the inlet so that
the flow can enter axially during shock-free flow.
 With axial entry Vw1 = 0 ; absolute velocity of the air
entering the compressor varies from impeller hub to
impeller tip, velocity u1 reaching maximum at the tip of the
impeller.
 Since Vr12 = u12 + V12, Vr1 will also become large so that
the inlet Mach number goes beyond unity resulting in an
obstruction (choking) at the compressor inlet. Mach
number should be maintained less than unity i.e 0.9 for
safer operation at the impeller eye tip.
LIMITING INLET VELOCITY
 Vr12 = u12 + V12 = u12 + Vf12 ;
 Vr12 = [πdtN/60]2 + [4Q/(π(dt2 – dh2)]2; dt diameter of
inducer vane tip, dh eye root diameter.
 To reduce Vr1 , dh is kept as small as possible
 Differentiating Vr1 and equating to zero
 (dt2 – dh2) = 2 * 602 [4Q/π]2 / (πN)2
 Vr12 = [πdtN/60]2 + [(πN)2 (dt2 – dh2)]/(2 * 602)
 Vr12 = [(πN)2 /602] *[ ((dt2 – dh2)/2) + dt2]
 Vr12 = [(πN)2 /(2*602 )] * (3dt2 – dh2)
 If the minimum Vr1 obtained is still too high for efficient
operation and flow rate & RPM cannot be altered, then
decrease in Vr1 is possible by providing PREWHIRL
LIMITING INLET VELOCITY
A
 PREWHIRL can be Prewhirl angle
obtained by providing Without prewhirl
inlet guide vanes Vr1
V1’
installed directly in front Va1 = V1 = Vf1’

of the eye. Vr1’


 ∆ACE – without α1’ α1 β1’ β1
prewhirl , W.D = u2Vw2 B V C
u1
D E
w1’
 ∆ABD – with prewhirl , u1’
Vr1’ < Vr1 , V1’ > V1,, β1’
> β1 , α1’ < α1
 W.D=u2Vw2 – u1’Vw1’
PREWHIRL
ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES
 Prewhirl vanes impart a whirl component Vw’ to the fluid,
thus reducing relative velocity (Vr1 to Vr1’ ) to an
acceptable value maintaining the Mach number less than
the critical value so that the flow is not obstructed.
 The work capacity is however reduced, this is because due
to prewhirl, the whirl component of the velocity is not
zero.
 Hence the disadvantage of positive prewhirl is to reduce
the energy transfer by an amount u1’ Vw1’
LOSSES IN CENTRIFUGAL
COMPRESSOR
 FRICTIONAL LOSSES: Occurs in stationary & rotating
blade passages. The flow in the impeller & diffuser is
decelerating in nature. Therefore the frictional losses are
due to both skin friction and boundary nature.
 INCIDENCE LOSSES: The direction of the relative
velocity of fluid at the inlet does not match with the inlet
blade angle, therefore fluid cannot enter the blade passage
smoothly by gliding along the blade passage. Known as
shock losses or incidence losses.
 CLEARANCE & LEAKAGE LOSSES: Clearance are
necessary between the impeller shaft & the casing and
between the outer periphery of the impeller eye & the
casing.
LOSSES IN CENTRIFUGAL
COMPRESSOR

FRICTIONAL LOSSES

TOTAL LOSS
LOSS

INCIDENCE LOSSES

MASS FLOW
PRESSURE COEFFICIENT
 Because of compressor losses as well as the exit kinetic
energy, the actual pressure rise is less than the theoretical
specified by the impeller tip speed. This is expressed by a
quantity called pressure coefficient φp.
 Φp = Isentropic Work required for actual pressure rise/
Isentropic work required by the impeller tip speed
 Φp = Isentropic work/ Euler Work
 Φp = ∆h’/W.D = Cp *[T3’ – T1]/u22
 Φp = Cp *T1[T3’ / T1 – 1]/u22
 Φp = Cp *T1[(Pr0)(γ-1)/γ– 1]/u22
 W.D = σu22= Δh0 = Cp (T03 – T01) ; (T03 – T01) = σu22/ Cp
PRESSURE COEFFICIENT
 Overall total to total compressor efficiency = ηct-t0
 ηct-t0 = Total isentropic enthalpy rise between inlet &
exit/(Actual enthalpy rise between the same total pressure
limits)
 ηct-t0 = (h03’ – h01)/(h03 – h01) = (T03’ – T01)/(T03 – T01)
 Energy balance between the impeller inlet (1-1) and the diffuser
exit (3-3) ; ∆h0 = h03 – h01 = [ h3 + V32/2 ] – [h1 + V12/2]
 The diffuser design should be such that the exit velocity from
the diffuser must be equal to the inlet absolute velocity to the
impeller.
 ∆h0 = h03 – h01 = h3 – h1 = Cp (T3 – T1) ;
 Hence ηct-t0 = (h3’ – h1)/(h3 – h1) = (T3’ – T1)/(T3 – T1)
PRESSURE COEFFICIENT
 Φp = ∆h’/W.D = Cp *[T3’ – T1]/u22
 T3’ – T1 = Φp * u22/Cp = ηct-t0 (T3 – T1) = ηct-t0 (T03 – T1)
 Also W.D = ∆h0 = σu22 = Cp(T03 – T01)
 (T03 – T01) = (T03 – T1) = σu22 /Cp
 Φp * u22/Cp = ηct-t0 (σu22 /Cp)
 Φp = ηct-t0 * σ
COMPRESSOR
CHARACTERISTICS

forward

Pressure Ratio or Head radial

backward

Mass flow rate

The ideal performance characteristics are to be modified because of the losses.


If these losses are subtracted from the ideal energy transfer for a radial-vaned
impeller, then the constant pressure ratio straight line characteristics becomes
curved.
COMPRESSOR
CHARACTERISTICS
COMPRESSOR
CHARACTERISTICS
At point B, efficiency approaches its
maximum and ppr. Ratio also reaches
D B maximum

CONSTANT SPEED CURVE


Further increase in the mass
Pressure Ratio A flow will result in the fall of the
E pressure ratio

Pressure drops to unity at C, when


the valve is fully open and all power
is absorbed in overcoming the
C internal frictional resistances

Mass flow

When the valve in delivery side is shut and the mass flow rate is zero, the
pressure ratio will have some value A.
As the valve is opened, flow commences and diffuser begins to influence the
pressure rise, for which the pressure ratio increases.
SURGING PHENOMENON
 There is an unstable limit of operation of compressors
called SURGING.
 Caused due to:
 UNSTEADY
 PERIODIC, and
 Reversal of flow through the compressor when the
compressor has to operate at less mass flow rate than the
predetermined value.
SURGING PHENOMENON
BY CLOSING THE VALVE OPERATING
POINT SHIFTS TO LEFT (MAXIMUM PPR.
RATIO OBTAINED
D B

CONSTANT SPEED CURVE


Flow reduced further, F INITIAL POINT OF
higher pressure in the OPERATION
Pressure Ratio A downstream than in E
the delivery side, flow
stops & reverses its
direction (in the
direction of pressure
gradient)
C
Mass flow
SURGING PHENOMENON
 Surge is defined as the operating point at which the compressor
peak head capability and minimum flow limit are reached.
 The compressor loses the ability to maintain the peak head
when surge occurs and the entire system becomes unstable.
 Under normal conditions, the compressor operates to the right of
the surge line.
 Due to occurrence of fluctuations in flow rate, or under startup /
emergency shutdown, the operating point will move towards the
surge line because flow is reduced.
 If conditions are such that the operating point approaches the
surge line, the impeller and diffuser begin to operate in stall and
flow recirculation occurs.
 The flow separation will eventually cause a decrease in the
discharge pressure and flow from suction to discharge will
resume.
 This is defined as the surge cycle of the compressor-
EFFECTS OF SURGING
 Flow is drastically reduced than the designed value.
 Can lead to mechanical failure
 Alternating stresses to which the rotor of the machine is
subjected during (surging) this irregular working
conditions, may damage the compressor bearings, rotor
blade seals, etc.
 Severe surge have been known to bend the rotor shaft.
CHOKING PHENOMENON
 Occurs at higher mass flow rate points.
 With increase in mass flow rate the pressure ratio
decreases, and hence the density also decreases.
 These effects result in a considerably increased velocity
which increases the absolute velocity and the incidence
angle at the diffuser vane top. Thus there is a rapid
progress towards a choking state.
 The slope of the characteristic curve steepens and finally
after point E mass flows cannot be increased any further.
The characteristic finally becomes vertical. The point E on
the characteristic curve is called the choking point.
ROTATING STALL
 The phenomenon of a reduction in mass flow rate through
the blade passages at higher angles of incidence is known
as rotating stall.
 It may lead to surging.
 If the air angle of incidence onto blade A is excessive,
perhaps due to partial blockage (or) uneven flow in the
diffuser, the blade may stall. Because of this, the mass flow
decreases which in turn increases the angle of incidence to
the left of the blade whereas angle of incidence decreases
to the right of blade A. Thus blade B will be the next to
stall while blade A will be unstalled and the process is
repeated about the periphery of the disc. Prolonged cyclic
loading and unloading of the blades can lead to fatigue
failure or even catastrophic failure.
ROTATING STALL
SURGING & STALLING
 Stall
 Defined as the (aerodynamic stall) or the break-away
of the flow from the suction side of the blades.
 A multi-staged compressor may operate safely with
one or more stages stalled and the rest of the stages
unstalled . but performance is not optimum. Due to
higher losses when the stall is formed.
 Surge
 Is a special fluctuation of mass flow rate in and out of
the engine. No running under this condition.
 Surge is associated with a sudden drop in delivery
pressure and with violent aerodynamic pulsation
which is transmitted throughout the whole machine.
PERFORMANCE
CHARACTERISTICS
 f( D, N, m, p01, p02, RT01, RT02) = 0 , D = characteristic linear
dimension of the machine, N = rotational speed, m = mass flow rate,
p01 = stagnation pressure at compressor inlet, p02 = stagnation pressure
at compressor outlet, T01 = stagnation temperature at compressor inlet,
T02 = stagnation temperature at compressor outlet and R =
characteristic gas constant
 By making the use of Buckingham’s pi-theorem, we obtain the non-
dimensional pi terms as
 p02/p01, T02/T01, m√(RT01)/(D2p01), ND/√(RT01)
 Since we are concerned with the performance of a machine of fixed
size compressing a specified gas, R & D can be omitted and we can
write f[p02/p01, T02/T01, m√(T01)/(p01), N/√(T01)] = 0
 We plot overall pressure ratio against m√(T01)/(p01) at fixed speed
intervals N/√(T01)
PERFORMANCE
CHARACTERISTICS
PERFORMANCE
CHARACTERISTICS
 Part of the curve which is on the left of the maximum
pressure ratio point is inoperable due to surge & the line
joining these points is called the surge line.
 The peak efficiencies at each speed are quite close to the
surge line.
 At certain speed, efficiency increases as the flow rate
increases and reaches a maximum value after which it
decreases.