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CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS PRESENTATION

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MAIN COMPONENTS:

INLET PIPE

IMPELLER DISC AND

IMPELLER

DIFFUSER

CASING

COLLECTION CHAMBER

OUTLET PIPE

WORKING PRINCIPLE

THE GAS ENTERS THE IMPELLER EYE OF A

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR IN AN AXIAL

DIRECTION WITH ABSOLUTE V1. THE GAS THEN

FLOWS RADIALLY THROUGH THE IMPELLER

PASSAGE DUE TO CENTRIFUGAL FORCE. THE

IMPELLER ROTATES AT A VERY HIGH SPEED

(20000 TO 30000 RPM). ENERGY IS IMPARTED TO

THE GAS BY THE ROTATING BLADES WHERE IT

IS CONVERTED INTO KINETIC ENERGY AS IT

MOVES FROM RADIUS r1 TO r2, ALONG WITH A

SMALL PRESSURE RISE DURING ITS RADIAL

FLOW IN THE IMPELLER.

WORKING PRINCIPLE

THE GAS LEAVING FROM THE IMPELLER

BLADES IS TURNED THROUGH AN ANGLE β2,

AND LEAVES WITH AN ABSOLUTE VELOCITY V2

AT AN ANGLE α2. THE GAS THEN ENTERS THE

DIFFUSER. THE DIFFUSER SURROUNDING THE

IMPELLER CONVERTS THE K.E. INTO PRESSURE

ENERGY. HENCE THERE IS RISE IN STATIC

PRESSURE OF THE GAS. GAS THEN ENTERS

THE CASING, AND THE OUTLET PIPE, WHERE

SOME MORE K.E. IS CONVERTED INTO

PRESSURE ENERGY.

WORKING PRINCIPLE

SINCE THE IMPELLERS ARE HIGHLY STRESSED,

STRAIGHT VANES ARE NORMALLY PREFERRED.

CURVED VANES WOULD STRAIGHTEN OUT

UNDER THE ACTION OF THE CENTRIFUGAL

FORCE INVOLVED WHICH IS CONSIDERABLE.

CHOICE OF RADIAL VANES LARGELY

DETERMINES THE PRESSURE RISE THAT WILL

BE DIVIDED APPROXIMATELY EQUALLY

BETWEEN THE IMPELLER & DIFFUSER.

STATIC & STAGNATION VALUES

STEADY STATE EQUATION

u1 + P1v1 + V12/2 = u2 + P2v2 1 Q=0 2

+ V22/2

T2, P2, V2

SINCE ENTHALPY h = u +Pv

h1 + V12/2 = h2 + V22/2 T1, P1, V1

CpT + V2/2 = CONSTANT

Here temperature T is called

the static temperature or the

temperature of the air

measured by the

thermometer when the

thermometer is moving at

velocity of air

STATIC & STAGNATION VALUES

If the moving air is brought to rest under reversible

conditions, the total kinetic energy of the air is

converted into heat energy, increasing the

temperature and pressure of the air. This temperature

and pressure of the air is known as STAGNATION or

TOTAL HEAD temperature and pressure. The total

head temperature and pressure are denoted by T0 &

P0 respectively CpT + V2/2 = CpT0 ;

CpT0 – CpT = V2/2 ; (h0 –h) = V2/2

P0/P =[T0/T]γ/(γ-1)

PROCESS ON h-s DIAGRAM

p02 p03

02 03 Final stage in

p3 collector

03’ process is not

3 p2 accomplished

K.E. leaving V22/2 isentropically,

the impeller

Diffuser 2-3 process (2-3)

results and some

kinetic energy

Isentropic p01 remains at diffuser

compression (velocity V3), the

2 static delivery

p1 pressure at point 3

2’ Impeller 1-2

is p3. the final

stage collector,

Ambient has a static

pressure 01 pressure p3, low

of air kinetic energy

V12/2 Accelerating nozzle, pressure drop, (V32/2) and a

change in enthalpy leads stagnation

pressure p03 which

1 to increase in kinetic energy

is less than p02

since diffusion

process is

incomplete

PRESSURE RISE

Converts

High velocity

Of the air

Leaving the

Impeller into

Pressure by

Accelerating Pressure

Slowing it

Nozzle: Increases

down

Due to

Velocity Centripetal 3

increases Acceleration

With Imparted By

Decrease in Impeller

p Pressure

2

0

Diffuser

Impeller

Inlet

1

casing

channel

WORK DONE

VELOCITY OF THE GAS AT THE

INLET IS AXIAL ; α1 = 90

β1

DEGREES; Vw1 = 0 ; V1 = Vf1

AC = u2 = Vw2 without slip ; ΔACE – Vr1

V1

without slip

BD = u2 with slip; ΔBDE –

with slip u1

AB = SLIP = Vw2 – Vw2’ ; BC =

Vw2’ INLET VELOCITY Δ

The relative velocity of the gas Vr1 at A B C D

the inlet makes an angle β1, with the α2 α2’ β2 β2’

direction of motion. The gas flows V2’ Vf2= Vr2

through the impeller and is turned

through an angle 90 degrees and V2 Vr2’

ideally, the outlet is in radial direction

i.e. the absolute velocity at exit V2 ,

is such that its whirl component is E

equal to u2. OUTLET VELOCITY Δ

WORK DONE

β2 = 90 degrees ; u2 = Vw2 ; Vr2 = Vf2 = ideal case

Euler’s equation Work Done = (Vw1u1 +-Vw2u2)/g

Since it is a power absorbing machine

W.D = (Vw2u2 -Vw1u1)/g ; Vw1 = 0 ; W.D= u2Vw2/g

W.D = u22/g ; since Vw2 = u2 or W.D = Vw22/g

WORK DONE

Work done in an adiabatic process INLET VELOCITY Δ

Δh0= u2Vw2 =u22*[Vw2/u2]

From outlet velocity Δ: V1 = Vf1 =Vf2 = Vr1

V1= Vf1

u1*tan β1 (for constant radial velocity)

β1

From outlet velocity Δ :

u2=Vw2+Vf2*cotβ2 ; u1

u2 - Vf2* cotβ2 =Vw2

u2

1-Vf2/u2 *cotβ2 = Vw2/u2 Vw2

α2 β2

W.D = u22 *[1-Vf2/u2*cotβ2]

Vf2

Since V2/sinβ2 =u2/sin(α2+β2)

Vw2 = V2*cosα2 V2 Vr2

Vw2/u2=sinβ2cosα2/(sinα2cosβ2+cosα2sinβ2)

Vw2/u2= tanβ2/(tanα2 + tanβ2)

OUTLET VELOCITY Δ

WORK DONE

Vw2/u2= tanβ2/(tanα2 + tanβ2)= [1-Vf2/u2 *cotβ2 ]

W.D = u22 *Vw2/u2

ENTHALPY- ENTROPY DIAGRAM

DURING THE COMPRESSION PROCESS A CONSIDERABLE

AMOUNT OF ENERGY SUPPLIED TO THECOMPRESSOR IS

WASTED IN CHURNING UP THE WORKING FLUID.

THIS ENERGY DOES NOT CONTRIBUTE TO THE

PRESSURE RISE BUT IS CONVERTED INTO HEAT BY

FRICTION.

THE OUTCOME IS THAT THE TEMPERATURE OF THE

WORKING FLUID IS HIGHER AT THE END OF THE

COMPRESSION THAN IT WOULD HAVE BEEN HAD THE

PROCESS BEEN FULLY AND TRULY ISENTROPIC.

HENCE MORE WORK INPUT TO THE COMPRESSOR IS

REQUIRED AND THEREBY THE EFFICIENCY OF THE

COMPRESSOR COMES INTO PICTURE.

ENTHALPY- ENTROPY DIAGRAM

p02

p2

02

V22/(2Cp)

2 p01

p1

h 02’

Actual process

of compression Wa

Wisen 2’

Isentropic

process

01

V12/(2Cp)

1

s

COMPRESSOR EFFICIENCY

p02

02

Irreversible Process

02’ p2

FINAL STATE

2 p01

h

2’

p1

01

Reversible

process

INITIAL STATE

1

s

COMPRESSOR EFFICIENCY

COMPRESSION EFFICIENCY BASED ON TOTAL

TO TOTAL ηct-t = (h02’ – h01)/(h02- h01) = (T02’ –

T01)/(T02-T01) based on stagnation properties at entry & exit

ηct-t = Isentropic compression work / Actual

compression work

COMPRESSION EFFICIENCY BASED ON TOTAL

TO STATIC ηct-s = (h2’ – h01)/(h02-h01)

COMPRESSION EFFICIENCY BASED ON STATIC

TO TOTAL ηcs-t = (h02’ – h1)/(h02-h01)

COMPRESSION EFFICIENCY BASED ON STATIC

TO STATIC ηcs-s = (h2’ – h1)/(h02-h01)

Based on static properties at entry & exit

COMPRESSOR EFFICIENCY

STAGNATION PRESSURE RATIO pr0 = p02’/p01

=p02/p01

STATIC PRESSURE RATIO pr =p2’/p1 = p2/p1

pr0 = p02/p01 =[T02’/T01]γ/(γ-1)

T02’ = T01 * (pr0)(γ-1)/γ ; T02’ - T01 = T01 * (pr0)(γ-1)/γ -

T01

T02’ - T01 = T01 * { (pr0)(γ-1)/γ – 1 }

ηct-t = (h02’ – h01)/(h02-h01) = (T02’ – T01)/(T02-T01)

= T01 * { (pr0)(γ-1)/γ – 1 }*cp /[cp(T02-T01)]

ηct-t = T01 * { (pr0)(γ-1)/γ – 1 }*cp /Wa

Wa= T01 * { (pr0)(γ-1)/γ – 1 }*cp / ηct-t

COMPRESSOR EFFICIENCY

If gas velocities at the entry & exit of a stage are

almost same and can be neglected

Wa = (h02 – h01) = (h2 – h1) = cp(T2 – T1)

Wisen s-s = (h2’ – h1) = cp(T2’ – T1)

ηcs-s = (h2’ – h1)/(h02-h01) = cp(T2’ – T1)/ [cp(T2 – T1)]

ηcs-s = (T2’ – T1)/ [(T2 – T1)]

T2’ - T1 = T1 * { (pr0)(γ-1)/γ – 1 }

ηcs-s = T1 * { (pr0)(γ-1)/γ – 1 }/[(T2 – T1)]

Wa = cp (T2 – T1) = T1 *cp { (pr0)(γ-1)/γ – 1 }/ ηcs-s

POLYTROPIC EFFICIENCY

A compressor stage can be viewed as made up of an

infinite number of small stages. To account for a

compression in an infinitesimal stage, poltropic

efficiency is defined for an elemental compression

process. 2 P2

Small Compressor Stage

P + dP

2’

h P

dT

P1

dT’

1

s

POLYTROPIC EFFICIENCY

For an isentropic process, the relationship between

pressure & temperature is given by :

p2/p1= [V1/V2]γ = [ρ2/ρ1] γ = [ T2/T1]γ/(γ-1)

T/P (γ-1)/γ ; (T+dT’) -T = T [ {(p+dp)/p}(γ-1)/γ -1 ]

ηp = (T+dT’ –T)/(T+dT – T)

dT/T = [(1+dp/p)(γ-1)/γ – 1]/ ηp

Ignoring higher order terms dT/T = [(1+ (γ-1)/γ dp/p]/ ηp

Integrating between limits of full compression from P1 to P2 and

taking γ as constant

ln(T2/T1) = 1/ηp *[(γ-1)/γ *ln(P2/P1)

T2/T1 =[P2/P1]1/ηp *(γ-1)/γ =[P2/P1]ε/ηp ; ε = (γ-1)/γ

POLYTROPIC EFFICIENCY

If the reversible adiabatic compression process is

assumed to be equivalent to a polytrophic process

with polytropic index n, the following relationship

between temperature and pressure will exist:

(T2/T1)= (P2/P1)(n-1)/n

1/ηp *(γ-1)/γ = (n-1)/n

ηp = (γ-1)/γ * n/(n-1)

So polytropic efficiency is also called as small

stage or infinitesimal stage efficiency.

FINITE STAGE EFFICIENCY

Taking static value of temperature & pressure, stage efficiency is

defined as ηs = (T2’ – T1)/(T2 – T1)

The finite stage or stage efficiency can be expressed in terms of

small stage or polytropic efficiency

(T2’ – T1) = T1 (T2’ /T1 – 1) = T1[(P2/P1)(γ-1)/γ -1)]

And T2 – T1 = T1[T1/T2 – 1] = T1 [ (P2/P1)1/ηp *(γ-1)/γ - 1)]

ηs= [(P2/P1)(γ-1)/γ -1)]/[ (P2/P1)1/ηp *(γ-1)/γ - 1)]

For multistage compressor with a constant stage pressure ratio,

the overall pressure ratio is given by:

Pr0 =PN+1/P1 = (P2/P1)N ; where N is the number of stages and

PN+1 is the pressure at the end of Nth stage

For multistage compression ηs is replaced by ηcs-s of the

compressor and Pr by the overall pressure ratio Pr0

ηcs-s= [(Pr0)(γ-1)/γ -1)]/[ (Pr0)1/ηp *(γ-1)/γ - 1)]

PREHEAT FACTOR IN COMPRESSORS

in isentropic flow, the outlet conditions of the gas for the first &

second stage are at 02s and 03s respectively, whereas the

actual outlet conditions are 02 & 03 corresponding to first stage

& second stage respectively.

If the stage efficiencies were the same, the total actual work

input to the different individual stages would be

W = 1/ηs[Ws1 + Ws2]= 1/ηs[(h02s – h01) + (h03s – h02)]

W = 1/ηs[∑W si] for stage 1 to 2

For n-stages the work for individual stage will be summed up &

divided by stage efficiency to get the actual work done.

N

1

W

s

W

i 1

si

PREHEAT FACTOR IN COMPRESSORS

P03

03

03s

h

P02

03ss P01

02

02s

01

s

PREHEAT FACTOR IN COMPRESSORS

pressure from P01 to P03. the actual work input that would be

supplied is W = 1/ηcs-s*Ws ; ηcs-s is the overall isentropic

compressor efficiency and Ws is the isentropic work

Ws = h03ss – h01

Actual work done W = h03 – h01; this is same for both single

stage & multi stage compressors.

s W si

i 1

cs s Ws

PREHEAT FACTOR IN COMPRESSORS

increasing entropy on h-s diagram, the isentropic enthalpy rise

across each stage increases even for a constant stagnation pressure

rise ΔP0 across each stage. Then, the sum of the stage isentropic

enthalpy rise is greater than the isentropic enthalpy rise in a single

stage compression.

For two stage compressor 2

(h02s – h01 ) + (h03s – h02) > (h03ss – h01) Wsi Ws

i 1

N

W si

i 1

1 FOR N STAGES

Ws

Ws

N

cs s / s P.F PREHEAT FACTOR < 1

W

i 1

si

PREHEAT FACTOR IN COMPRESSORS

ηcs-s/ηs < 1

The overall isentropic compressor efficiency ηcs-s is

less than the stage efficiencies ηs

For the first stage compression, state 02 may be

obtained after an ideal compression from 01 to 02,

followed by “PREHEATING” of the fluid from state

02s to 02 at constant pressure (T02 > T02s)

This inherent thermodynamic effect that reduces the

efficiency of the multistage compressor is called the

PREHEAT EFFECT.

PRESSURE RISE

ηct-t = (h02’ – h01)/(h02-h01)=(T02’ – T01)/(T02-T01)

(T02-T01)=(T02’ – T01)/ ηct-t

W.D = h02 –h01 = Δh0 =cp(T02-T01) =u22/g

(T02’ – T01) = u22/(cpg) * ηct-t

For isentropic process p02/p01 =[T02’ /T01]γ/(γ-1)

p02/p01 =[T02’ /T01]γ/(γ-1)= [(T02’ – T01 + T01)/T01] γ/(γ-1)

Stagnation pressure rise between the impeller &

the exit Pr1 = p02/p01 = [(T02’ – T01 )/T01 + 1] γ/(γ-1)

Pr1 = p02/p01 = [u22/(cpg) * ηct-t / T01 + 1] γ/(γ-1)

if V1 = V2 ; pR = p2/p1 =[u22/(cpg) * ηct-t/T1 + 1] γ/(γ-1)

STAGE PRESSURE RISE

Δh0 = (Δp0)s/ρ for isentropic compression process

(Δp0)s= Δh0ρ = ρu2Vw2/g = ρu22/g [ 1 – Vf2/u2 cotβ2]

Static pressure rise (Δpr) through the impeller is due

to the change in the centrifugal energy and the

diffusion of the relative flow.

(p2 –p1) = (Δpr) = ρ/(2g)[u22 – u12] + ρ/(2g)[Vr12 – Vr22]

(Δp0)s = ρ/(2g)[u22 – u12] + ρ/(2g)[Vr12 – Vr22] +

ρ/(2g)[V22 – V12]

(Δp0)s = (p2 –p1) + ρ/(2g)[V22 – V12]

(Δp0)s = (Δpr) + ρ/(2g)[V22 – V12]

EULER EQUATION

WORK DONE = (Vw1u1 – Vw2u2)/g J/kg

Vw2u2 > Vw1u1 BLOWER OR COMPRESSOR

Vw1u1 > Vw2u2 TURBINE

W.D/ unit mass flow rate =[(V12 – V22) + (u12-u22) + (Vr22 –

Vr12)]/(2g)

(V12 – V22)/(2g) change in absolute kinetic energy; leads to

change in dynamic head or dynamic pressure.

(u12-u22)/(2g) change of centrifugal energy of fluid in motion ;

causes a change in static head of the fluid through rotor.

(Vr22 – Vr12)/(2g) change in relative kinetic energy due to

change in relative velocity; causes a change in static head o the

fluid through rotor.

PRESSURE COEFFICIENT

LOADING COEFFICIENT: ψ = W/u22

It is a measure of pressure raising capacities of various

types of centrifugal compressor impellers of different sizes

running at different speeds.

ψ = Vw2/u2 or ψ = 1 – [Vr2/u2] cotβ2 ; ψ = [1 – φ2cotβ2]

Φ2 – Flow coefficient = [Vr2/u2]

This expression gives the theoretical performance

characteristics of different geometries

Φ – ψ PLOT

Forward Tipped

Radial Tipped

1

Pressure

Coefficient

ψ

Backward Tipped

Flow Coefficient

φ

DEGREE OF REACTION

R = (Pressure rise in rotor (impeller))/(Pressure rise in the stage)

R = (Δpr)/(Δp0)s

(Δpr) = ρ/(2g)[u22 – u12] + ρ/(2g)[Vr12 – Vr22]

From inlet velocity triangle Vr12 – u12 = V12

(Δpr) = ρ/(2g) * [ u22 – Vr22 + V12] = ρ/(2g) * [u22 – Vr22

+ Vf22] ; since α1 = 90 degrees , V1 = Vf1 = Vf2

From exit velocity triangle Vr22 – Vf22 = [ Vw2 – u2]2

u22 – Vr22 + Vf22 = 2u2Vw2 – Vw22

(Δpr) =ρ/(2g) * [ 2u2Vw2 – Vw22]

R = {ρ/(2g) * [ 2u2Vw2 – Vw22]}/{ρ/(2g) * Vw2u2}

R= 1 – Vw2/(2u2)

DEGREE OF REACTION

BACKWARD CURVED VANES (β2 < 90 )

Vw2/u2 < 1 ; R < 1

RADIAL BLADES (β2 = 90 )

Vw2 = u2 ; R =0.5

FORWARD CURVED VANES (β2 > 90 )

Vw2>u2 ; R < 0.5

DEGREE OF REACTION

DEGREE OF REACTION R = Static component of energy

transfer/(Dynamic + Static) components of energy transfer

R = S /(D + S) ; S = RD/(1-R)

If β2 = 90 degrees ; R=0.5 ; S = D; Static pressure

rise in the rotor = change in absolute K.E.

When R =0 ; there is no change of static pressure

possible inside the machine i.e. the machine is

having impulse blade.

PROCESS ON h-s DIAGRAM

p02 p03

02 03 Final stage in

p3 collector

03’ process is not

3 p2 accomplished

K.E. leaving V22/2 isentropically,

the impeller

Diffuser 2-3 process (2-3)

results and some

kinetic energy

Isentropic p01 remains at diffuser

compression (velocity V3), the

2 static delivery

p1 pressure at point 3

2’ Impeller 1-2

is p3. the final

stage collector,

Ambient has a static

pressure 01 pressure p3, low

of air kinetic energy

V12/2 Accelerating nozzle, pressure drop, (V32/2) and a

change in enthalpy leads stagnation

pressure p03 which

1 to increase in kinetic energy

is less than p02

since diffusion

process is

incomplete

OVERALL PRESSURE RATIO

Pr0 = overall pressure ratio = P03/P01

ηct-to = overall total – to –total compressor efficiency

ηct-to = (Total isentropic enthalpy rise between the

inlet & exit)/Actual enthalpy rise between the same

total pressure limits)

ηct-to =(h03’ – h01)/(h03 – h01) =(T03’ – T01)/(T03 – T01)

ηct-to = T01(T03’ /T01 – 1)*1/(T03 – T01)

(T03’ /T01 – 1) = ηct-to*(T03 – T01)/ T01

p03/p01 = [T03’ /T01]γ/(γ-1)

Pr0 = p03/p01 =[1 + ηct-to*(T03 – T01)/ T01] γ/(γ-1)

OVERALL PRESSURE RATIO

We know that no work is done during the diffuser

process (2 to 3 )

Δh0 = h02 – h01 = cp *(T02 –T01) = cp(T03 – T01) = u22/g

Since Pr0 = p03/p01 =[1 + ηct-to*(T03 – T01)/ T01] γ/(γ-1)

Hence Pr0 = p03/p01 =[1 + ηct-to*u22/(gcp T01)] γ/(γ-1)

This equation can be used to calculate the stagnation

pressure ratio between impeller inlet to diffuser outlet

Pr1 = p02/p01 = [u22/(cpg) * ηct-t / T01 + 1] γ/(γ-1)

The above earlier derived equation can be used to

calculate the stagnation pressure ratio between the

impeller inlet & impeller exit

SLIP FACTOR

Due to the large amount of mass of air (gas) flowing

through the impeller, it has certain inertia. Due to the

formation of eddies, the velocity of whirl at the exit

reduces, and the flow is turned through an angle less

than 90 degrees compared to 90 degrees in case of

an ideal condition. This effect is known as ‘SLIP’

SLIP

V2 D

B IDEAL VEL.TRIANGLE WITHOUT SLIP

V2’

Vr2’

W.D = Δh0 =u2Vw2/g

VEL. Δ WITH SLIP

Vf2 β2’ (without slip)

β2

W.D = Δh0 =σu2Vw2/g

A Vw2’ C (with slip)

Vw2

u2

SLIP FACTOR

W.D = Δh0 =σu22/g (with slip)

SLIP

B D

V2

VEL. Δ WITHOUT SLIP

V2’ Vr2 =Vf2

Vr2’

VEL. Δ WITH SLIP

Vf2’

β2= 90 β2’

RADIAL CURVED VANES β2 = 90

Vw2’ C

u2 = Vw2

SLIP FACTOR

σ = Vw2/u2

W.D = σu22/g = Δh0

impeller exit

Pr1 = p02/p01 = [u22σ/(cpg) * ηct-t / T01 + 1] γ/(γ-1)

diffuser outlet

Pr0 = p03/p01 =[1 + ηct-to*σu22/(gcp T01)] γ/(γ-1)

POWER FACTOR

Some of the power supplied by the impeller is used in

overcoming losses which have a breaking effect such

as disc friction or windage and the power input is

therefore modified by a factor φ

W.D = σφu22/g = Δh0

Pr1 = p02/p01 = [φu22σ/(cpg) * ηct-t / T01 + 1] γ/(γ-1)

LIMITING INLET VELOCITY

INDUCER: The inducer or the entry section of the

impeller has a pronounced effect on the impeller

performance and hence on the overall compressor

efficiency.

The tip of the inducer eye is the point where the highest

inlet relative Mach number occurs. Generally the eye root

diameter is taken as small as possible, limiting value being

the shaft diameter & bearing arrangement.

PREWHIRL OR INLET GUIDE VANES: To further

reduce the Mach Number. But there will be a reduction in

the energy transfer. This type of technique is usually used

in high-pressure ratio compressors, where the inlet Mach

number exceeds unity and shock waves reduce the impeller

speed.

LIMITING INLET VELOCITY

It is usual to shape the impeller blades at the inlet so that

the flow can enter axially during shock-free flow.

With axial entry Vw1 = 0 ; absolute velocity of the air

entering the compressor varies from impeller hub to

impeller tip, velocity u1 reaching maximum at the tip of the

impeller.

Since Vr12 = u12 + V12, Vr1 will also become large so that

the inlet Mach number goes beyond unity resulting in an

obstruction (choking) at the compressor inlet. Mach

number should be maintained less than unity i.e 0.9 for

safer operation at the impeller eye tip.

LIMITING INLET VELOCITY

Vr12 = u12 + V12 = u12 + Vf12 ;

Vr12 = [πdtN/60]2 + [4Q/(π(dt2 – dh2)]2; dt diameter of

inducer vane tip, dh eye root diameter.

To reduce Vr1 , dh is kept as small as possible

Differentiating Vr1 and equating to zero

(dt2 – dh2) = 2 * 602 [4Q/π]2 / (πN)2

Vr12 = [πdtN/60]2 + [(πN)2 (dt2 – dh2)]/(2 * 602)

Vr12 = [(πN)2 /602] *[ ((dt2 – dh2)/2) + dt2]

Vr12 = [(πN)2 /(2*602 )] * (3dt2 – dh2)

If the minimum Vr1 obtained is still too high for efficient

operation and flow rate & RPM cannot be altered, then

decrease in Vr1 is possible by providing PREWHIRL

LIMITING INLET VELOCITY

A

PREWHIRL can be Prewhirl angle

obtained by providing Without prewhirl

inlet guide vanes Vr1

V1’

installed directly in front Va1 = V1 = Vf1’

∆ACE – without α1’ α1 β1’ β1

prewhirl , W.D = u2Vw2 B V C

u1

D E

w1’

∆ABD – with prewhirl , u1’

Vr1’ < Vr1 , V1’ > V1,, β1’

> β1 , α1’ < α1

W.D=u2Vw2 – u1’Vw1’

PREWHIRL

ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES

Prewhirl vanes impart a whirl component Vw’ to the fluid,

thus reducing relative velocity (Vr1 to Vr1’ ) to an

acceptable value maintaining the Mach number less than

the critical value so that the flow is not obstructed.

The work capacity is however reduced, this is because due

to prewhirl, the whirl component of the velocity is not

zero.

Hence the disadvantage of positive prewhirl is to reduce

the energy transfer by an amount u1’ Vw1’

LOSSES IN CENTRIFUGAL

COMPRESSOR

FRICTIONAL LOSSES: Occurs in stationary & rotating

blade passages. The flow in the impeller & diffuser is

decelerating in nature. Therefore the frictional losses are

due to both skin friction and boundary nature.

INCIDENCE LOSSES: The direction of the relative

velocity of fluid at the inlet does not match with the inlet

blade angle, therefore fluid cannot enter the blade passage

smoothly by gliding along the blade passage. Known as

shock losses or incidence losses.

CLEARANCE & LEAKAGE LOSSES: Clearance are

necessary between the impeller shaft & the casing and

between the outer periphery of the impeller eye & the

casing.

LOSSES IN CENTRIFUGAL

COMPRESSOR

FRICTIONAL LOSSES

TOTAL LOSS

LOSS

INCIDENCE LOSSES

MASS FLOW

PRESSURE COEFFICIENT

Because of compressor losses as well as the exit kinetic

energy, the actual pressure rise is less than the theoretical

specified by the impeller tip speed. This is expressed by a

quantity called pressure coefficient φp.

Φp = Isentropic Work required for actual pressure rise/

Isentropic work required by the impeller tip speed

Φp = Isentropic work/ Euler Work

Φp = ∆h’/W.D = Cp *[T3’ – T1]/u22

Φp = Cp *T1[T3’ / T1 – 1]/u22

Φp = Cp *T1[(Pr0)(γ-1)/γ– 1]/u22

W.D = σu22= Δh0 = Cp (T03 – T01) ; (T03 – T01) = σu22/ Cp

PRESSURE COEFFICIENT

Overall total to total compressor efficiency = ηct-t0

ηct-t0 = Total isentropic enthalpy rise between inlet &

exit/(Actual enthalpy rise between the same total pressure

limits)

ηct-t0 = (h03’ – h01)/(h03 – h01) = (T03’ – T01)/(T03 – T01)

Energy balance between the impeller inlet (1-1) and the diffuser

exit (3-3) ; ∆h0 = h03 – h01 = [ h3 + V32/2 ] – [h1 + V12/2]

The diffuser design should be such that the exit velocity from

the diffuser must be equal to the inlet absolute velocity to the

impeller.

∆h0 = h03 – h01 = h3 – h1 = Cp (T3 – T1) ;

Hence ηct-t0 = (h3’ – h1)/(h3 – h1) = (T3’ – T1)/(T3 – T1)

PRESSURE COEFFICIENT

Φp = ∆h’/W.D = Cp *[T3’ – T1]/u22

T3’ – T1 = Φp * u22/Cp = ηct-t0 (T3 – T1) = ηct-t0 (T03 – T1)

Also W.D = ∆h0 = σu22 = Cp(T03 – T01)

(T03 – T01) = (T03 – T1) = σu22 /Cp

Φp * u22/Cp = ηct-t0 (σu22 /Cp)

Φp = ηct-t0 * σ

COMPRESSOR

CHARACTERISTICS

forward

backward

If these losses are subtracted from the ideal energy transfer for a radial-vaned

impeller, then the constant pressure ratio straight line characteristics becomes

curved.

COMPRESSOR

CHARACTERISTICS

COMPRESSOR

CHARACTERISTICS

At point B, efficiency approaches its

maximum and ppr. Ratio also reaches

D B maximum

Further increase in the mass

Pressure Ratio A flow will result in the fall of the

E pressure ratio

the valve is fully open and all power

is absorbed in overcoming the

C internal frictional resistances

Mass flow

When the valve in delivery side is shut and the mass flow rate is zero, the

pressure ratio will have some value A.

As the valve is opened, flow commences and diffuser begins to influence the

pressure rise, for which the pressure ratio increases.

SURGING PHENOMENON

There is an unstable limit of operation of compressors

called SURGING.

Caused due to:

UNSTEADY

PERIODIC, and

Reversal of flow through the compressor when the

compressor has to operate at less mass flow rate than the

predetermined value.

SURGING PHENOMENON

BY CLOSING THE VALVE OPERATING

POINT SHIFTS TO LEFT (MAXIMUM PPR.

RATIO OBTAINED

D B

Flow reduced further, F INITIAL POINT OF

higher pressure in the OPERATION

Pressure Ratio A downstream than in E

the delivery side, flow

stops & reverses its

direction (in the

direction of pressure

gradient)

C

Mass flow

SURGING PHENOMENON

Surge is defined as the operating point at which the compressor

peak head capability and minimum flow limit are reached.

The compressor loses the ability to maintain the peak head

when surge occurs and the entire system becomes unstable.

Under normal conditions, the compressor operates to the right of

the surge line.

Due to occurrence of fluctuations in flow rate, or under startup /

emergency shutdown, the operating point will move towards the

surge line because flow is reduced.

If conditions are such that the operating point approaches the

surge line, the impeller and diffuser begin to operate in stall and

flow recirculation occurs.

The flow separation will eventually cause a decrease in the

discharge pressure and flow from suction to discharge will

resume.

This is defined as the surge cycle of the compressor-

EFFECTS OF SURGING

Flow is drastically reduced than the designed value.

Can lead to mechanical failure

Alternating stresses to which the rotor of the machine is

subjected during (surging) this irregular working

conditions, may damage the compressor bearings, rotor

blade seals, etc.

Severe surge have been known to bend the rotor shaft.

CHOKING PHENOMENON

Occurs at higher mass flow rate points.

With increase in mass flow rate the pressure ratio

decreases, and hence the density also decreases.

These effects result in a considerably increased velocity

which increases the absolute velocity and the incidence

angle at the diffuser vane top. Thus there is a rapid

progress towards a choking state.

The slope of the characteristic curve steepens and finally

after point E mass flows cannot be increased any further.

The characteristic finally becomes vertical. The point E on

the characteristic curve is called the choking point.

ROTATING STALL

The phenomenon of a reduction in mass flow rate through

the blade passages at higher angles of incidence is known

as rotating stall.

It may lead to surging.

If the air angle of incidence onto blade A is excessive,

perhaps due to partial blockage (or) uneven flow in the

diffuser, the blade may stall. Because of this, the mass flow

decreases which in turn increases the angle of incidence to

the left of the blade whereas angle of incidence decreases

to the right of blade A. Thus blade B will be the next to

stall while blade A will be unstalled and the process is

repeated about the periphery of the disc. Prolonged cyclic

loading and unloading of the blades can lead to fatigue

failure or even catastrophic failure.

ROTATING STALL

SURGING & STALLING

Stall

Defined as the (aerodynamic stall) or the break-away

of the flow from the suction side of the blades.

A multi-staged compressor may operate safely with

one or more stages stalled and the rest of the stages

unstalled . but performance is not optimum. Due to

higher losses when the stall is formed.

Surge

Is a special fluctuation of mass flow rate in and out of

the engine. No running under this condition.

Surge is associated with a sudden drop in delivery

pressure and with violent aerodynamic pulsation

which is transmitted throughout the whole machine.

PERFORMANCE

CHARACTERISTICS

f( D, N, m, p01, p02, RT01, RT02) = 0 , D = characteristic linear

dimension of the machine, N = rotational speed, m = mass flow rate,

p01 = stagnation pressure at compressor inlet, p02 = stagnation pressure

at compressor outlet, T01 = stagnation temperature at compressor inlet,

T02 = stagnation temperature at compressor outlet and R =

characteristic gas constant

By making the use of Buckingham’s pi-theorem, we obtain the non-

dimensional pi terms as

p02/p01, T02/T01, m√(RT01)/(D2p01), ND/√(RT01)

Since we are concerned with the performance of a machine of fixed

size compressing a specified gas, R & D can be omitted and we can

write f[p02/p01, T02/T01, m√(T01)/(p01), N/√(T01)] = 0

We plot overall pressure ratio against m√(T01)/(p01) at fixed speed

intervals N/√(T01)

PERFORMANCE

CHARACTERISTICS

PERFORMANCE

CHARACTERISTICS

Part of the curve which is on the left of the maximum

pressure ratio point is inoperable due to surge & the line

joining these points is called the surge line.

The peak efficiencies at each speed are quite close to the

surge line.

At certain speed, efficiency increases as the flow rate

increases and reaches a maximum value after which it

decreases.

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