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Rocket Nomenclature

EGR 4347
Analysis and Design of
Propulsion Systems
Nomenclature

 Pc = chamber pressure (initial total pressure of

the nozzle system)
 Tc = chamber temperature (initial total
temperature of the nozzle system)
 Pn = nozzle pressure ratio Pc/Pa
 Pe = nozzle exit pressure
 Pressure ratio to which the nozzle is designed
such that Pe = Pa
 Pc 
Pn  Pn des   
 Pa  des
Ideal Rocket Thrust

A2  A1  Ae

m eVe
Fx   0  Patm A1  Fi  Patm A2  Pe Ae
gc
m eVe
Fi   Pe  Patm Ae
gc
Ideal Rocket Thrust

 Force required to hold a rocket at rest as the rocket

ejects a propellant rearward under the following
conditions:
– Patm acts everywhere on the rocket’s external surface
– Propellant flow rate is constant
– The rate of change of momentum within the rocket is negligible
– Isentropic flow through nozzle, total pressure and
temperatures are constant
Specific Impulse Isp

Thrust produced Fi
I sp  
What it cos ts in terms of fuel flow w
Fi ~ mdot*Vexit
Isp ~ Vexit
Isp ~ 1/S units (s)
Higher exit velocity – more thrust for a given amount of
propellant
Characteristic Velocity C*

 “*” does not mean sonic conditions

 Characteristic of reaction process
 Units of velocity
Characteristic Velocity C*

 Theoretical  Experimental

Rg cTc At Pc g c
C*  C* 
 m
 1

  1  1
   
 2 
Tc  flame temperature

R, Tc, and  are thermochemical calculations

Pc, At, and massflow are experimentally measured
C*experimental should be more than 90% of C*theoretical
Thrust Coefficient CFi

Fi
C Fi 
Pc At
 Numerical values between 0.6 and 2.2
 Figure of merit independent of rocket size