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Plates & Shells Theories

Kirchhfoff
Reissner/Mindlin
Plates & Shells
Loaded in the transverse direction and may be
assumed rigid (plates) or flexible (shells) in their
plane.

Are typically thin in one dimension

Plate elements are typically used to model flat


surface structural components

Shells elements are typically used to model


curved surface structural components
Assumptions

Based on the proposition that plates and shells


are typically thin in one dimension plate and
shell bending deformations can be expressed in
terms of the deformations of their midsurface
Assumptions
As a consequence…
Stress through the thickness (perpendicular to
midsurface) is zero.

Material particles that are originally on a straight


line perpendicular to the midsurface remain on a
straight line after deformation
Plate Bending Theories

Material particles that are originally on a straight


line perpendicular to the midsurface remain on a
straight line after deformation
Kirchhfoff Reissner/Mindlin
Shear deformations Shear deformations
are neglected are included
Straight line remains Straight line does NOT
perpendicular to remain perpendicular
midsurface after to midsurface after
deformations deformations
Kirchhoff Plate Theory

First Element developed for thin plates and shells

z w1

y qy
qx
x

In plane deformations neglected

Transverse Shear deformations neglected


Strain Tensor

Strains u   zq x
z

w
q
x
u  w
2
x   z 2
x x
Strain Tensor

Strains v   zq y
z

w
q
y
v  w
2
 y   z 2
y y
Strain Tensor

Shear Strains

u v  w 2
 xy    z
y x xy

 zx   zy  0
Strain Tensor

 2w 
 2 
x   2x 
    w 
 y   z 2 
   y2 
 xy    w
2
 xy 
 
Moments

h/2 h/2
Mx    x
h / 2
zdz My    y
h / 2
zdz
Moments

h/2
M xy  
h / 2
xy zdz
Moments

 M x  h / 2  x 
   
 M y     y  zdz
 M  h / 2  
 xy   xy 
Stress-Strain Relationships

z
h

At each layer, z, plane stress conditions are assumed


 M x  h / 2  x 
   
 M y     y  zdz
 M  h / 2  
 xy   xy 

 x  1  0   
  E   x 
 y    1 0   y 
  1   2
 1     2w 
 xy   0 0   xy  
2  2 
x   2x 
    w 
 y   z 2 
   y2 
 xy    w
2 xy 
 
Stress-Strain Relationships
Integrating over the thickness the generalized
stress-strain matrix (moment-curvature) is obtained
Mx   x 
   
 M y   D  y 
M   
 xy   xy 
 
h/2  1  0 
E
D  z 2
 1 0  dz
h / 2
1  
2
1  
 0or 0 
 2 
Generalized stress-strain matrix

 
3  1  0 
Eh
D  1 0 

12 1   2
  1  
0 0 
 2 
Formulation of Rectangular Plate Bending
Element
z
w1
q1 x
y
Node 2
x q1 y
Node 1

Node 3 Node 4
h

12 degrees of freedom
For Admissible Displacement Field
w1 q1 x

q1 y

wi  w xi , yi 

w xi , yi  w xi , yi 
 
i  
i

y
x
x
y

i=1,2,3,4 12 equations / 12 unknowns


Formulation of Rectangular Plate Bending
Element

For plate bending the strain tensor is


established in terms of the curvature

 2w 
 2 
  x   2x  Mx   x 
    w     
 y    2 
 M y   D  y 
   y2  M   
 xy    w   xy   xy 
2
 xy 
 
Shell Elements

z w
v
y qy
qx
x
u h
Shell Element by superposition of plate
element and plane stress element

Five degrees of freedom per node


No stiffness for in-plane twisting
Kirchhoff Shell Elements

Use this element for the analysis of folded plate


structure
Comments

Plate and Shell elements based on Kirchhoff


plate theory do not include transverse shear
deformations

Such Elements are flat with straight edges and


are used for the analysis of flat plates, folded
plate structures and slightly curved shells.
(Adjacent shell elements should not be co-
planar)
Reissner/Mindlin Plate Theory

z w1

y qy
qx
x

In plane deformations neglected

Transverse Shear deformations ARE INCLUDED


Strain Tensor
u   z x
z

xz w
x    xz
x
w
x u  x
x   z
x x
Strain Tensor
v   z y
z

yz w
y    yz
y
w
y v  y
 y   z
y y
Strain Tensor

Shear Strains
u v   x  y 
 xy     z   
y x  y x 
Transverse Shear assumed constant through thickness
w w
x    xz y    yz
x y

w w
 xz   x  yz   y
x y
Strain Tensor

Plane Strain Transverse Shear Strain


  x 
   w 
x
 xz   x   x 
 xx   
    y      w 
 yy    z  
   y   yz     y 
 y 
 xy    x  y 
 y  x 
 
Stress-Strain Relationships
Isotropic Material

z
h

At each layer, z, plane stress conditions are assumed


Stress-Strain Relationships

Transverse Shear Stress

 w 
 xz   
E  x x

   w 
 yz  2(1   )    y 
 y 
Kirchhoff – Reissner/Mindlin Comparison
In addition to the more general nature of the
Reissner/Mindlin plate element note that

Kirchhoff:
Interpolated field variable is the deflection w
Reissner/Mindlin:
Interpolated field variables are
Deflection w
Section rotation x
Section rotation y

True Boundary Conditions are better represented