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# Plates & Shells Theories

Kirchhfoff
Reissner/Mindlin
Plates & Shells
Loaded in the transverse direction and may be
assumed rigid (plates) or flexible (shells) in their
plane.

## Plate elements are typically used to model flat

surface structural components

## Shells elements are typically used to model

curved surface structural components
Assumptions

## Based on the proposition that plates and shells

are typically thin in one dimension plate and
shell bending deformations can be expressed in
terms of the deformations of their midsurface
Assumptions
As a consequence…
Stress through the thickness (perpendicular to
midsurface) is zero.

## Material particles that are originally on a straight

line perpendicular to the midsurface remain on a
straight line after deformation
Plate Bending Theories

## Material particles that are originally on a straight

line perpendicular to the midsurface remain on a
straight line after deformation
Kirchhfoff Reissner/Mindlin
Shear deformations Shear deformations
are neglected are included
Straight line remains Straight line does NOT
perpendicular to remain perpendicular
midsurface after to midsurface after
deformations deformations
Kirchhoff Plate Theory

z w1

y qy
qx
x

## Transverse Shear deformations neglected

Strain Tensor

Strains u   zq x
z

w
q
x
u  w
2
x   z 2
x x
Strain Tensor

Strains v   zq y
z

w
q
y
v  w
2
 y   z 2
y y
Strain Tensor

Shear Strains

u v  w 2
 xy    z
y x xy

 zx   zy  0
Strain Tensor

 2w 
 2 
x   2x 
    w 
 y   z 2 
   y2 
 xy    w
2
 xy 
 
Moments

h/2 h/2
Mx    x
h / 2
zdz My    y
h / 2
zdz
Moments

h/2
M xy  
h / 2
xy zdz
Moments

 M x  h / 2  x 
   
 M y     y  zdz
 M  h / 2  
 xy   xy 
Stress-Strain Relationships

z
h

## At each layer, z, plane stress conditions are assumed

 M x  h / 2  x 
   
 M y     y  zdz
 M  h / 2  
 xy   xy 

 x  1  0   
  E   x 
 y    1 0   y 
  1   2
 1     2w 
 xy   0 0   xy  
2  2 
x   2x 
    w 
 y   z 2 
   y2 
 xy    w
2 xy 
 
Stress-Strain Relationships
Integrating over the thickness the generalized
stress-strain matrix (moment-curvature) is obtained
Mx   x 
   
 M y   D  y 
M   
 xy   xy 
 
h/2  1  0 
E
D  z 2
 1 0  dz
h / 2
1  
2
1  
 0or 0 
 2 
Generalized stress-strain matrix

 
3  1  0 
Eh
D  1 0 

12 1   2
  1  
0 0 
 2 
Formulation of Rectangular Plate Bending
Element
z
w1
q1 x
y
Node 2
x q1 y
Node 1

Node 3 Node 4
h

12 degrees of freedom
w1 q1 x

q1 y

wi  w xi , yi 

w xi , yi  w xi , yi 
 
i  
i

y
x
x
y

## i=1,2,3,4 12 equations / 12 unknowns

Formulation of Rectangular Plate Bending
Element

## For plate bending the strain tensor is

established in terms of the curvature

 2w 
 2 
  x   2x  Mx   x 
    w     
 y    2 
 M y   D  y 
   y2  M   
 xy    w   xy   xy 
2
 xy 
 
Shell Elements

z w
v
y qy
qx
x
u h
Shell Element by superposition of plate
element and plane stress element

## Five degrees of freedom per node

No stiffness for in-plane twisting
Kirchhoff Shell Elements

structure

## Plate and Shell elements based on Kirchhoff

plate theory do not include transverse shear
deformations

## Such Elements are flat with straight edges and

are used for the analysis of flat plates, folded
plate structures and slightly curved shells.
(Adjacent shell elements should not be co-
planar)
Reissner/Mindlin Plate Theory

z w1

y qy
qx
x

## Transverse Shear deformations ARE INCLUDED

Strain Tensor
u   z x
z

xz w
x    xz
x
w
x u  x
x   z
x x
Strain Tensor
v   z y
z

yz w
y    yz
y
w
y v  y
 y   z
y y
Strain Tensor

Shear Strains
u v   x  y 
 xy     z   
y x  y x 
Transverse Shear assumed constant through thickness
w w
x    xz y    yz
x y

w w
 xz   x  yz   y
x y
Strain Tensor

## Plane Strain Transverse Shear Strain

  x 
   w 
x
 xz   x   x 
 xx   
    y      w 
 yy    z  
   y   yz     y 
 y 
 xy    x  y 
 y  x 
 
Stress-Strain Relationships
Isotropic Material

z
h

## At each layer, z, plane stress conditions are assumed

Stress-Strain Relationships

## Transverse Shear Stress

 w 
 xz   
E  x x

   w 
 yz  2(1   )    y 
 y 
Kirchhoff – Reissner/Mindlin Comparison
In addition to the more general nature of the
Reissner/Mindlin plate element note that

Kirchhoff:
Interpolated field variable is the deflection w
Reissner/Mindlin:
Interpolated field variables are
Deflection w
Section rotation x
Section rotation y