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Introduction to Chemistry

Chemistry
The study of:

 the composition
(make-up) of
matter
 the changes that
matter
undergoes
The 5 Traditional Branches of Chemistry

Inorganic
Organic
Analytical
Physical
Biochemistry
Inorganic Chemistry
 The study of chemicals that do not
contain carbon.
Organic Chemistry
 The study of chemicals that contain
carbon.
 Origin: study of chemicals in living
organisms.
Analytical Chemistry
 Composition of matter; measurable,
identifies compounds/components

Example:
Mass Spectrometer
Gas Chromatograph

http://besg.group.shef.ac.uk/Facilities/Images/gcms.JPG
Physical Chemistry
 The study of :
 The mechanism
 The rate
 The energy transfer that happens when
matter undergoes change.
 Study of the interaction between two
elements
 Study of properties and changes of matter
and energy
Biochemistry
 Study of processes that take place
in organisms.
 Understand the structure of
matter found in the human body and
the chemical changes that occur in
cells
Science

What?
Why?
How?
When?
Science and Technology
 Theoretical Chemistry-Design of new
compound and new ideas; 2 categories:
pure and applied
 Science  Pure
 Does not necessarily have an application;
just knowing for knowledge’s sake; research
 Technology  Applied
 Has practical applications in society
 Directed toward a practical goal/application
 Engineering
Alchemists (~300BC-1650 AD)
China, India, Arabia, Europe, Egypt

•Aiming to:
Change common
metals to gold.
Develop
medicines.
•Developed lab
equipment.
•Mystical.
Antoine Lavoisier
(France 1743-1794)

 Regarded as the Father of Chemistry


 Designed equipment
 Used observations
and measurements.
 Discovered nitrogen
 Law of Conservation
of Mass
The Scientific Method
Steps followed during
scientific investigations
Logical, problem solving
technique
Fathers of the scientific
method is Galileo Galilei and
Francis Bacon
Scientific Method

 Observation- recognition of a problem


 Visible or provable fact
 From that a question arises (problem
statement)
 Problem statement is a question that compares
variables
 Example: Does the amount of salt in water affect
the boiling temperature of water?
Scientific Method
 Hypothesis- a proposed explanation of an
observation
 an educated guess
 must be testable
 Is a statement NOT a question that expresses the
expected answer to the problem statement (what
you think the results of the experiment will show)
 If you increase the amount of salt added to the
water, the boiling temperature will also increase
because
Scientific Method
 Experiment- an organized procedure used to
test a hypothesis (measurement, data
collection, manipulated and responding
variables)
 Planned way to test the hypothesis and find out the
answer to the problem posed
 Way to collect data and determine the value of the
dependent variable
 Compares independent variable to the dependent
variable
 Can only test one dependent variable at a time
Scientific Method
 3 parts to an experiment
 Control-standard for comparison
 Variables
 Independent Variable
 Dependent Variable
 Constants-parts of your experiment that do
not change
Scientific Method
 Independent Variable
 A variable that changes unrelated to other factors
 A variable we manipulate, change, on purpose
 A variable whose value we know before we start an
experiment
 Example: Does the amount of salt in water affect
the boiling temperature of water? We know how
much salt we add to each amount of water before
boiling so amount of salt is the independent variable
Scientific Method
 Dependent Variable
 A variable that changes depending on some other
factors
 The variable we are trying to find out
 Variable whose value we do not know before we start
the experiment
 Example: Does the amount of salt in water affect
the boiling temperature of water? We do not know
the boiling temperature to water once salt is added;
must test to find this out
Scientific Method
 Constants
 Does not change for the duration of the
experiment
 Remains the same
 Example: Does the amount of salt in water
affect the boiling temperature of water?
We would not change the brand of salt or
the amount of water (or type of water)
Scientific Method
 Analyze
 Look for patterns in experimental data
 2 types of data
 Quantitative = numbers
 Qualitative = observations
 Data presented via tables or graphs
 3 types of graphs: circle (pie), bar, line
Scientific Method
The cafeteria wanted
to collect data on
how much milk was
sold in 1 week. The Day Chocolate Strawberry White

table shows the Monday


Tuesday
53
72
78
97
126
87
results. We are Wednesday 112 73 86

going to take this


Thursday 33 78 143
Friday 76 47 162

data and display it in


3 different types of
graphs.
Scientific Method
 Bar Graph
 A bar graph is used to
show relationships Chocolate Milk Sold

between groups. 120

 The two items being


112

100

compared do not need 80

to affect each other.


76

Amount Sold
72

60

 It's a fast way to show


53

40

big differences. Notice


33

how easy it is to read a


20

bar graph.
0
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

 Often used for


Monday Tuesday
Wednesday Thursday Day
Friday

counting.
Scientific Method
 Circle graph (a.k.a.
pie chart) Chocolate Milk Sold

 Used to show how a


part of something
relates to the whole.
 This kind of graph is Monday
Tuesday

needed to show Wednesday


Thursday

percentages Friday

effectively.
 Sum of parts is 1 or
100%
Scientific Method
 Line Graph
 A line graph is used Chocolate MIlk Sold

to show continuing 120

data; how one thing is 100

affected by another. 80

Amount Sold
 It's clear to see how 60

things are going by 40

the rises and falls a 20

line graph shows. 0


Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

 Equation of line
Day

Chocolate

represents the data.


Scientific Method
 Choosing the right graph for your data
 Use a bar graph if you are not looking for trends (or
patterns) over time; and the items (or categories)
are not parts of a whole.
 Use a pie chart if you need to compare different
parts of a whole, there is no time involved and there
are not too many items (or categories).
 Use a line graph if you need to see how a quantity
has changed over time. Line graphs enable us to find
trends (or patterns) over time.
Scientific Method
 Conclusion
 Presents the findings of the experiment,
what the data shows, the hypothesis and
whether or not it was correct (supported) or
incorrect (negated)
 Theorizes why the observed pattern is so
Scientific Method
 Communicate
 When scientists collaborate (work together)
and communicated, they increase the
likelihood of a successful outcome
 Journals
 Internet
 Presentations/Speeches
Observations vs. Inferences
 Observation
 Something you confirm, something you have
seen, a fact
 A piece of information about circumstances
that exists or events that have occurred
 Inference
 An abstract or general idea derived from
specific instances
 Idea, thought, concept, notion, opinion
Theory
 A well tested explanation for a broad set
of observations.
 May use models.
 May allow predictions.
 Theories may change to explain new
observations or experimental data.
Law

 A statement that summarizes results of


observations, but does not explain them.
 Concise statement that summarizes the
results of many observations and
experiments
 Changes or is abandoned when
contradicted by new experiments.
Note:
 The order of the steps can vary and
additional steps may be added.
“No number of
experiments can prove
me right;
a single experiment can
prove me wrong.”
Albert Einstein
Math and Chemistry
 Math- the language of Science
 SI System (Metric System)
 Factor Label Method (Dimensional Analysis)
 Significant Figures
 Scientific Notation
 Manipulating Formulas
Units

 SI Units – International System

 Basic Units abbreviation

Length (meter) m
Mass (kilogram) kg
Time (second) s
Solving Word Problems

 Analyze
 List knowns and unknowns.
 Devise a plan.
 Write the math equation to be used.
 Calculate
 If needed, rearrange the equation to solve
for the unknown.
 Substitute the knowns with units in the
equation and express the answer with units.
 Evaluate
 Is the answer reasonable?