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Thrust Vectoring Gp Cpt Md.

Abdus Salam

Thrust vectoring, also thrust

vector control or TVC, is the ability
of an aircraft, rocket, or other vehicle
to manipulate the direction of the
thrust from its engine(s) or motor in
order to control the attitude or
angular velocity of the vehicle.

• Lift engines can be designed to operate in the vertical or

horizontal position and a thrust deflecting nozzle fitted to
provide some of the advantages of thrust vectoring.
• Alternatively, the engine may be mounted so that it can swivel
through a large angle to provide thrust vectoring.
• The lift-jet engine will have an extremely hot, high velocity jet
exhaust and to reduce ground erosion by the jet the normal
exhaust nozzle may be replaced by a multi-lobe nozzle to
increase the rate of mixing with the surrounding air.

In case of rocket propulsion, the

propulsion system not only
provides propulsive force but also
means of controlling its flight path
by redirecting its thrust vector
to provide directional control.
This is known as thrust vector
control (TVC).
Reasons for TVC

• To change a flight path/trajectory

• To rotate a vehicle or change its altitude during flight
• To correct for deviation from the intended path.
• To correct for misalignment.

Pitch/Yaw- Simple deflection

of thrust vector.
Roll-Rotary vanes/separate nozzle.
Control of Thrust Vector

Pitch Moments: Nose up/down

Yaw Moments: Move left/right
Roll Moments: Roll/turn sideways
Choosing a TVC Method

When choosing a TVC method, the following situations are

• Characteristics of the engine/motor and
• Flight application and duration.
• Maximum angular accelerations required or acceptable,
• Environment,
• Number of engines/motors on the rocket or aircraft,
• Available actuating power, and the weight.
• Effective loss of engine performance due to the use of a
particular TVC method
TVC Methods

Types of TVC method are-

1.Gimbaled Engine
2.Flexible Laminated Bearing
3.Flexible Nozzle Joint
4.Jet Vanes
6.Jet Tabs
7.Side Injection
8.Vernier Rockets
TVC Methods

Gimbaled Engine:
In this case, the engine
has a hinge or a gimbal
(a universal joint) that allows
rotation about its axis-that
is the whole engine is pivoted
on a bearing.
TVC Methods

Flexible Laminated Bearing and Flexible Nozzle Joint

The swiveled nozzle changes the
direction of throat and nozzle.
It is similar to gimbaled engine.
The main drawback in using
this method is difficulty in
fabricating the seal joint of the
swivel since the swivel is exposed
to extreme high pressure and
TVC Methods

Jet Vanes
Jet vanes are small airfoils
located at the nozzle exit plane,
and behave like ailerons or
elevators on an aircraft, and
cause the vehicle to change its
direction. This control system
causes a loss of thrust ( 2 to 3 %)
and erosion of vanes.
TVC Methods

The system has rotating airfoil
shaped collar, and gives an
unsymmetrical distribution
of gas flow. This provides a side
force thereby changing the
direction of flight.
TVC Methods

Side Injection
A secondary fluid ( gas or liquid) is
injected into the exhaust system to
deflect it and thereby changing the thrust
vector. The gas is either vented from the
main combustion chamber or from an
auxiliary gas generator.
For liquids, catalyzed monopropellant
( e.g, hydrazine, nitrogen tetra-oxide) I
s used.
TVC Methods

Vernier Rockets
These are small auxiliary rocket
engines, and can provide all attitude
control, or just roll control for single
engine stages during the main engine
burn, and means of controlling the
rocket after the main engine shut off.
TVC Methods
TVC Power Supply Categories

TVC needs an onboard power source during flight.

Two basic requirements-
TVC Power Supply Categories

• Working fluid (oil, electricity, gas) is recirculated in a closed
loop system.
• Ex-Hydraulic pump, electric generator, gas compressor
• Pros- Never runs out (until onboard power supply does which
usually means the end of the fight anyway); easier preflight
• Cans- Heavier, more complex
TVC Power Supply Categories

• Working fluid is dumped overboard after use
• Ex-Hydraulic actuator, electric batteries, gas pressure
vessel, thrusters.
• Pros-Lighter, simpler.
• Cons- Limited duration (must estimate total fluid
requirement, odd margin)