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1.

A hallucination is a perception in the absence of
external stimulus that has qualities of real
perception.
2. Hallucinations are vivid, substantial, and are
perceived to be located in external objective space.
 “ A perception without an object.”
-Esquirol.
 “A false perception,
not a sensory distortion or
misinterpretation,
occurs at the same time as
real perception.”
- Jaspers.
Emergence of surprising/fantasy images.

Frequent reality check.

Last vestige of insight as hallucinations become
indistinguishable from reality.

Fantasy and distoration elaborated upon and confused with
actual perception.
Visual Auditory Olfactory

General
Tactile
Somatic
VISUAL
HALLUCINATION
TYPES OF VISUAL HALLUCINATION

Simple Visual Hallucination

Complex Visual Hallucination
 It is referred to as non-formed visual
hallucinations and elementary Hallucinations.
 It represents:-

 Colors

 Dots

 Geometric Patterns

 Flashing light
 It is referred to as formed visual Hallucinations.
 Complex visual hallucinations are clear, lifelike
images or scenes such as people, animals, objects,
etc.
AUDITORY
HALLUCINATION
TYPES OF AUDITORY HALLUCINATION

Elementary Hallucination

Complex Hallucination
• Elementary hallucinations are the perception of
sounds such as hissing, whistling, an extended
tone, and more.
• In many cases, tinnitus is an elementary auditory
hallucination.
• Complex hallucinations are those of voices, music,
or other sounds that may or may not be clear, may
be familiar or completely unfamiliar, and friendly or
aggressive, among other possibilities.
OLFACTORY
HALLUCINATIONS
TACTILE
HALLUCINATIONS
GENERAL SOMATIC
HALLUCINATIONS
Hypnagogic Delirium
Focal epilepsy
hallucination tremens

Sensory
Charles Bonnet Drug-induced
deprivation
syndrome hallucination
hallucination

Migraine coma
HYPNAGOGIC
HALLUCINATIONS
FOCAL EPILEPSY
DELIRIUM TREMENS
SENSORY DEPRIVATION
HALLUCINATIONS
1.Sensory deprivation or perceptual isolation is the
deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli from one
or more of the senses.
2.Simple devices such as blindfolds and earmuffs can
cut off sight and hearing, while more complex
devices can also cut off the sense of smell, touch,
taste, thermoception (heat-sense), and 'gravity'.
3.Sensory deprivation has been used in
various alternative medicines and in psychological
experiments .
4.Short-term sessions of sensory deprivation are
described as relaxing and conducive to meditation;
however, extended or forced sensory deprivation
can result in extreme anxiety
, hallucinations, bizarre thoughts, and depression.
5.A related phenomenon is perceptual deprivation,
also called the ganzfeld effect.
MIGRAINE COMA
REFLEX (MORBID
FUNCTIONAL SYNAETHESIA)

AUTOSCOPY(PHANTOM
EXTRACAMPINE
MIRROR IMAGE)
1.Functional hallucinations are a rare phenomenon,
wherein hallucinations are triggered by a stimulus
in the same modality, and co-occur with it.
2. Functional hallucinations are an unusual form of
perceptual disorder.
3. For example, a patient may report hearing voices
criticizing him every time he hears the sound of a
rotating fan, and which stop when the fan is not
running.
1.It is a stimulus in which one sensory field produces
a hallucination in one another.
2.Reflex Hallucination is a morbid variety of
synaesthesia.
3.Example:- feel writing in stomach.
4.SYNAESTHESIA:- It is an experience of a stimulus
image in one sense modality producing an image in
another. Example:- Feeling of discomfort caused
by seeing or hearing somebody scratch a
blackboard with their fingernail.
1. It is a hallucination which is outside the limits of
the sensory field.
2. They are the hallucinations beyond the possible
sensory field.
3. Example:- “Seeing” somebody standing behind
you is a visual extracampine hallucination
experience.
4. These hallucinations occur in schizophrenia,
epilepsy and other organic state and also as
hypnagogic hallucinations.
1. It is the experience of seeing oneself and knowing
that it is oneself.
2. It is sometimes called as “ Phantom mirror image.”
3. It is seen in Schizophrenia, Organic state and
parietal lobe.
4. There are two types of Autoscopy:-
1. NEGATIVE AUTOSCOPY
2. INTERNAL AUTOSCOPY
1.Hallucinations can be extremely distressing but
they are usually the result of an identifiable cause
that a sufferer may be able to receive treatment
for.
2.Certain measures can be taken to prevent or
reduce hallucination, although a psychologist or
psychiatrist may need to be consulted in cases of
hallucination caused by mental illness.
3. If hallucinations are causing significant distress,
antipsychotic medication may be prescribed.
 These hallucinations include stress management,
healthy living, regular exercise and sleeping well.
 The use of illicit drugs such as cocaine, LSD,
amphetamines or ecstasy can cause hallucinations.
Excessive alcohol consumption is another cause.
These hallucinations can occur during periods of
withdrawal from drugs or alcohol if the substances
are stopped too suddenly.
 Psychosocial strategies used to help manage
hallucination include education and counseling to
help the patient and their family cope with the
hallucinations and understand the importance of
medication compliance.
 Examples of antipsychotic medications used to
treat hallucinations include haloperidol, olanzapine
and risperidone.
 Hallucinations can occur as a side effect of the
treatment for Parkinson’s disease. If this occurs,
the patient’s medication may require adjustment.
Usually, amantadine and anticholinergics are
stopped first. Thereafter, dopamine agonists may
be withdrawn. Clozapine and quetiapine are
examples of neuroleptic drugs that may help treat
hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease.
 Other problems that occur as a result of
hallucination such as memory disturbance, sleep
disorder, depression, anxiety and associated panic
attacks may also need to be managed with
treatment.
 The hallucination theory is one of the most refuted
objections to the disciple’s belief of seeing the
risen Jesus.
 Hallucinations do not occur in groups and are
individual occurrences is supported by numerous
experts.
 Expert testimony has been presented to show
hallucinations rarely change lives.
 The most common hallucinations are believed to be
auditory, with voices that are mostly threatning or
insulting.