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THE CITY EDGE
THE CUSTOMS THE MULTIPLE
THE CITY EDGE
BOUNDARY EDGE
• “Circumscription is a principal
characteristic of city-form.”

• Things have changed in the modern
period: we no longer think of the city as a
closed form with hard edges.

• The city of bounds are not revised lightly,
but are not ordinarily frozen perpetuity.
THE CUSTOMS BOUNDARY • The customs boundary did not always
correspond to the coty limits as defined by the
walls, because walls did not remain true to
the actual extent of the urban fabric.
• But in many important cities, walls and
customs barrier became disengaged more
than once.
• In order to reduce smuggling, a customs
boundary was then drawn farther out along a
limit fixed by peripheral building– what Pliny
calls extrema tectorum (limits of the built) and
what the Roman citizens called continetia
(continuous fabric of the city as far out as it
stretched)
• Customs barriers remained in place even
after the obsolescene of city walls in modern
times.
THE MULTIPLE EDGES
• The shift of the city edge is not
always a simple matter of
peripheral growth or shrinkage.
Equally pervasive is the
multiple city edge, that is, those
cases where the city comes to be
composed of two or more
independently outlined units in
close proximity.
THE CITY EDGES
THE WALLED EDGE
ALTERNATIVE THE NATURE
THE FRINGE BELT CITY GATES MURAL TRACES
BOUNDARIES OF CITY WALLS
ALTERNATIVE BOUNDARIES
• Many cities made do without walls, sometimes this was because the natural site was
defense enough. ( Akhenaten’s Amarna ; Nabatean Petra.)
• Beyond the presence of natural defenses, cities dispensed with walls when they felt
confident that the political system they were a part of was too strong to fear attacks.
THE NATURE OF CITY WALLS

• Walls need room. They may appear as a thin single line on a city plan, but in reality they can be
represented by a ditch and bank.

• To save labor and to take advantage of the defensive possibilities of the site, the walls often trace land
contours, incorporating natural features into their design. The presence of such features affects the initial
choice of the site.

• In medieval Europe the idea of the double curtain becomes current in the 14th century. The addition of
second wall created a sheltered belt which could be used by the besieged to gather and stage unexpected
sorties.
THE FRINGE BELT
CITY GATES
• Gates were of critical importance in a
walled city.
• As official entrances of the city, the gates
received architectural care. They were
often monumental, with spacious
passages at ground level and rooms above.
MURAL TRACES
MEETING THE WATER
RIVER TOWNS PORTS AND
RESORTS
RIVER TOWNS

• The particularity of the site and the
way the settlement meets the water,
give character to the city form.

• The incidence of cities growing on
both sides of a river is limited, and
usually requires special pleading.
PORT AND RESORTS
• A river is a working watercourse with a port,
it can be used for trade-related activities or
turn it into a work of art.
ON THE PERIPHERY
EARLY SUBURBS PLANNED EXTENSIONS INDUSTRIAL
EXTREMITIES
EARLY SUBURBS
• It is now clear that a number of medieval
cities grew out of severeal distinct elements,
each with different origin and history and that
the Pirenne thesis of the merger of a defensive
nucleus and a suburb of merchants is only one
limited explanation of urban process in Middle
Ages.
• We have to distinguish between subrurban
extensions that never lose direct contact with
a prior city, and others that in effect start as
new centers without being physically contigent
upon the city.
• We also have to distinguish between
spontaneous extensions of the city form, and
intentional.
PLANNED EXTENSIONS
INDUSTRIAL EXTREMITIES
THE OPEN CITY
CONTROLS AT THE FRINGE
Greenbelts and allotment gardens
• Means to arrest sprawl by designating a wide sone none aedificandi all
around the urban core.

• By the end of century the allotment garden had taken hold on Continent.
The only problem with this ragged green belt was its impermanence.
THE REGULATING PLAN
THE SOFT EDGE OF SUBURBIA
TRANSPORTATION AND A SPECTRUM OF EDGE CITIES
THE CITY EDGE SUBURBS
TRANSPORTATION AND THE CITY EDGE
A SPECTRUM OF SUBRUBS
EDGE CITY
LESSON LEARNED
Perkembangan sejarah elemen-elemen pembentuk kota.
• Seiring berjalannya waktu, batasan suatu kota sudah tidak secara literal ditandai
oleh dinding-dinding tinggi, namun bisa ditandai dengan city edge dari daerah itu
sendiri.

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