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CONTENTS

1 Electric Supply System

2 Typical a.c. Power Supply Scheme

3 Comparison of D.C. and A.C. Transmission

4 Advantages of High Transmission Voltage

5 Various Systems of Power Transmission

6 Comparison of Conductor Material in Overhead System

9 Elements of a Transmission line

10 Economics of Power Transmission

11 Economic Choice of Conductor size

12 Economic Choice of Transmission Voltage

13 Requirements of Satisfactory Electric Supply

Introduction

Need of bulk energy shifted the power stations at favorable

places away from the load/ consumers.

**A sophisticated supply system is needed to carry energy from
**

generation systems to consumers.

**There is a large network of conductors between the power
**

station and the consumers.

**This network can be broadly divided into two parts :
**

1. Transmission

2. Distribution

**The transportation or delivery of electric power from a power
**

station to consumers’ premises is known as electric supply system.

The electric supply system can be broadly classified into:

1. D.C or A.C system

2. Overhead or underground system

For generation and transmission:

**3-phase, 3-wire a.c. system is universally adopted as an
**

economical proposition.

For distribution :

3-phase, 4-wire a.c. system is adopted.

**Transmission system and distribution system are
**

further divided into tow parts:

Transmission system:

1. Primary transmission

2. Secondary transmission

Distribution system

1. Primary distribution

2. Secondary distribution.

8 kv) Generation voltage 11 kV is stepped up to 132 kV High voltage transmission helps saving in conductor material and high transmission efficiency. . increased cost of switchgear and transformer.3. Limits imposed on high voltage transmission due to insulation problem.Generating station : 3-phase alternators operating in parallel Generation voltage is 11 kV (in pakistan 3. 6.6. 13.11. The choice of proper transmission voltage is essentially a question of economics.

Primary transmission: Generally the primary transmission is carried at 66 kV. 132 kV. Secondary transmission: In a certain power scheme. It is transmitted by 3-phase. 3-wire overhead system to various sub-stations (SS) located at the . 220 kV or 400 kV. there may be no secondary transmission. Electric power is transmitted at 33kV by 3-phase. 3-wire overhead system to the . At the receiving station (RS) the voltage is reduced to 33kV by step- down transformers.

3-wire.Primary distribution: In some schemes there is only distribution and no transmission. The 11 kV lines run along the . At the sub-station (SS) voltage is reduced from 33 kV to 11kV. The voltage between any two phases is 400 V and between any phase and neutral is 220 V. 3-phase. DS are located near the and step down the voltage to 400 V. Secondary distribution: 11 kV is delivered to distribution sub-stations (DS). 4-wire for secondary distribution. . 3-phase.

Distributors 3.1. Service mains . Feeders 2.

. Voltages and depictions of electrical lines are typical for Germany and other European systems.General layout of electricity networks.

1. D. .c.c.c. transmission : 1. transmission has the following advantages over high voltage a.c.C. transmission.c. transmission Transmission of d. or a. power has been receiving the active consideration of engineers due to its numerous advantages. phase displacement and surge problems in d. Each system has its own merits and demerits. There is no inductance. The electric power can be transmitted either by means of d. capacitance. 2.c. Requires only two conductors transmission. Advantages: The high voltage d.

Less voltage drop as compared to A.3. 6. 5. Less corona loss and reduced interference with communication circuits. The high voltage d. No stability problems and synchronising difficulties. No skin effect . 4.C due to absence of inductance . 7. 8. .c. DC line requires less insulation as potential stress on the insulation is less.entire cross-section of the line conductor is utilised. transmission is free from the dielectric losses.

c. The d. voltage 2. voltage cannot be stepped up 3.c.c. The d.Disadvantages: 1. switches and circuit breakers have their own limitations . Electric power cannot be generated at high d.

Effective resistance of the line is increased due to skin effect. transmission: Electrical energy is almost exclusively generated. Advantages: 1. Disadvantages: 1. Complicated construction than a DC transmission line. transmitted and distributed in the form of AC. 3. 3. The maintenance of AC sub-stations is easy and cheaper.2. Continuous loss of power due to charging current even when the line is open due to the capacitance of AC line . 2. Requires more copper than a DC line. A. The power can be generated at high voltages. The AC voltage can be stepped up or stepped down . 2. 4.C.

The introduction of mercury arc rectifiers and thyratrons can convert AC into DC and vice-versa easily and efficiently. Present day trend: •AC for generation and distribution •High voltage DC for transmission .Conclusion High voltage DC transmission is superior to high voltage AC transmission. Such devices can operate upto 30 MW at 400 kV in single units.

HVDC technology is feasible over 600 km The longest HVDC link in the world is currently the Xiangjiaba-Shanghai 2.071 km 6400 MW link Siemens to supply world’s most powerful 800-kV HVDC transformer to China .

The transmission of electric power is carried at high voltages due to the following reasons : .

P = power transmitted in watts I = P/ √3 (V cosφ) V = line voltage in volts cos φ = power factor of the load R = ρɭ/a ɭ = length of the line in metres R = resistance per conductor in ohms ρ = resistivity of conductor material W = 3I2 R a = area of X-section of conductor W = 3 x [P/ √3 (V cosφ)]2 x ρ ɭ /a W=P2 ρ ɭ / V2 cos2φ a a =P2 ρ ɭ / W V2 cos2φ .Consider the transmission of electric power by a .

l. = 3 a ɭ = 3 x [P2 ρ ɭ /W V2 cos2φ ] x ɭ = 3 P2 ρ ɭ 2/ W V2 cos2φ It is clear that for given values of P. ρ and W. the volume of conductor material required is inversely proportional to the square of transmission voltage and power factor. OR .

Input power = Power transmitted + Total losses Input power = P+ Total losses W=P2 ρ ɭ / V2 cos2φ a =P + P2 ρ ɭ / V2 cos2φ a Assuming J to be the current density of the conductor a = I/J Input power = P+ P2 ρ ɭ / V2 cos2φ x ( I/ J) I = P/ √3 (V cosφ) = P+ [P2 ρ ɭ J / V2 cos2φ] x (1/ I) = P+ [P2 ρ ɭ J / V2 cos2φ] x √3 (V cosφ)/ P = P+ √3 P J ρ ɭ / V cosφ =P[1+ √3 J ρ ɭ / V cosφ ] .

Input power =P[1+ √3 J ρ ɭ / V cosφ ] Transmission efficiency = Output power / Input power P Transmission efficiency = P[1+ √3 J ρ ɭ / V cosφ ] = 1 1+ √3 J ρ ɭ / V cosφ x From binomial theorem (1 + x)n = 1 + nx/1! + n(n .1)(n ..1)x2/ 2! + n(n .2)x3 /3! + .. = (1+ √3 J ρ ɭ / V cosφ )-1 = [1+ (-1) √3 J ρ ɭ / V cosφ x 1/ 1!+ …… ] .

Transmission efficiency = 1.√3 J ρ ɭ V cosφ .

The percentage of voltage drop = Line drop x 100 Source Voltage Line drop = I R =I×ρɭ/a = I × ρ ɭ / (I/J ) =ρɭJ %age line drop = ρɭJ X 100 V .

It must be realized that high transmission voltage results in: 1. switchgear and other terminal apparatus. Increased cost of insulating the conductors 2. transformer. This limit is reached when the saving in cost of conductor material due to higher voltage is offset by the increased cost of insulation. switchgear etc . Increased cost of transformers. There is a limit to the higher transmission voltage .

3-wire a.C. .C. The different possible systems of transmission are : 1.C. system is universally adopted. three-wire.c. system a) D. two-wire. b) D.3-phase.C. D. under special circumstances other systems can also be used for transmission. two-wire with mid-point earthed. c) D.

b) Two-phase three wire. system a) Single-phase two-wire. Single-phase A. 3. b) Single-phase two-wire with mid-point earthed. b) Three-phase four-wire. Three-phase A. 4.C. system a) Two-phase four-wire.C. Two-phase A.C. . system a) Three-phase three-wire.2. c) Single-phase three-wire.

There are two cases : .a comparison is required in terms of The best system for transmission of power is that for which the volume of conductor material required is minimum. The shall be on the basis of equal . .

3. The maximum voltage between any conductor and earth is the same in each case. The distance over which power is transmitted remains the same. The line losses are the same in each case. 4. will be assumed in each case: 1. . 2. Same power transmitted by each system.

voltage between conductors = Vm Power to be transmitted = P Load current I1 = P/Vm If R1 is the resistance of each line conductor R1 = ρ ɭ /a1 a1 is the area of X-section of the conductor Coductor volume= 2 a1 ɭ Line losses W = 2 I21 R1 = 2 (P/Vm)2 X (ρ ɭ /a1) . ɭ Max.

Therefore.Area of X-section. volume ofconductor material required in this system shall be taken as the basic quantity. a1 = 2 P2ρ ɭ / W V2m Volume of conductor material required = 2 a1 ɭ = 2 x [2 P2ρ ɭ / W V2m] x ɭ = 4P2ρ ɭ2/ W V2m This system is the basis for comparison with other systems. .

W = 2 I22 R2 = 2 (P/2Vm)2 X (ρ ɭ /a2) Area of X-section.The maximum voltage between any conductor and earth is Vm so that maximum voltage between conductors is 2Vm. a2 = 2 P2ρ ɭ / 2 W V2m . Load current. I2 = P/2Vm R2 = ρ ɭ /a2 Line losses.

Volume of conductor material required = 2 a2 ɭ = 2 x [2 P2ρ ɭ / 2W V2m] x ɭ = P2ρ ɭ2/ W V2m = [P2ρ ɭ2/ W V2m ] x (4/4) (multiplying and dividing by 4) As 4P2ρ ɭ2/ W V2m = K The volume of conductor material required in this system is that required in a with one conductor earthed. .

Assuming balanced loads. If the load is balanced. I3 = P/2Vm R3 = ρ ɭ /a3 Line losses. the current in the neutral wire is zero. W = 2 I23 R3 = 2 (P/2Vm)2 X (ρ ɭ /a3) Area of X-section. a3 = 2 P2ρ ɭ / 2 W V2m . Load current.Two outers and a middle or neutral wire earthed at the generator end.

5 a3 ɭ = 2.5/8 )[P2ρ ɭ2/ W V2m ] = (2.5/8 )[K] x (2/2 ) (multiplying and dividing by 2) Volume of conductor material required in this system is of what is required for a with one conductor earthed.5 x [2 P2ρ ɭ / 2W V2m] x ɭ = (2.5/2 )[P2ρ ɭ2/ W V2m ] x (4/4) (multiplying and dividing by 4) = (2. .Assuming the area of X-section of neutral wire to be Volume of conductor material required = 2.5/2) [ P2ρ ɭ2/ W V2m] = (2.

m.s. Load power factor to be cos φ Load current I4 = P/[( Vm / √2) x cos φ ] = √2 P/Vm cos φ R4 = ρ ɭ /a4 Line losses W = 2 I24 R4 = 2 [√2 P/Vm cos φ]2 X (ρ ɭ /a4) =4 P2 ρ ɭ /V2m cos φ2 a4 . value of voltage between them is Vm / √2 .The maximum voltage between conductors is Vm so that r.

.Area of X-section a4 = 4 P2 ρ ɭ /W V2m cos2φ Volume of conductor material required = 2 a4 ɭ = 2 x [4 P2 ρ ɭ /W V2m cos2φ ] x ɭ =( 2/ cos φ2) x [4 P2 ρ ɭ2 /W V2m] As 4P2ρ ɭ2/ W V2m = K The volume of conductor material required in this system times that .

The two wires possess equal and opposite voltages to earth. value of voltage between conductors is = 2Vm / √2 = √2 Vm (For Detail calculation refer page#136 of book) Volume of conductor material required . The maximum voltage between the two wires is 2Vm The r.s.m.

138 of book) .Volume of conductor material required (For Detail calculation refer page#136 of book) Volume of conductor material required (For Detail calculation refer page#137 of book) Volume of conductor material required (For Detail calculation refer page#137.

S. voltage per phase = Vm / √2 Power transmitted per phase = P/3 Load current per phase As IL = P/VL cos φ I9 =(P/3) /(Vm/ √2 cos φ ) = √2 P /3Vmcos φ ) . R.M.wire system may be star connected or delta connected The neutral point N is earthed. 3.The 3-phase.

Let a9 be the area of X-section of each conductor. Line losses W = 3 I9 2x R9 = 3x[(√2 P /3Vmcos φ)] 2 x ρ ɭ /a9 = 2P2ρ ɭ /3 a9Vm2cos2φ Area of X-section a9 =2 P2ρ ɭ /3W Vm2cos2φ Volume of conductor material required = 3 a9 x ɭ =3 [2 P2ρ ɭ /3W Vm2cos2φ] x ɭ =2 P2ρ ɭ2 /3W Vm2cos2φ ) (multiplying and dividing by 2) As 4P2ρ ɭ2/ W V2m = K The volume of conductor material required for this system is times that required .

The area of X-section of the neutral wire is generally one-half that of the line conductor. of the load as cos φ Line losses W = Same as in 3 phase. 3-wire = 2P2ρ ɭ /3 a10Vm2cos2φ .4th or neutral wire is taken from the neutral point. Assuming balanced loads and p.f. If the loads are balanced. then current through the neutral wire is zero.

5 x a10 x ɭ = 3. Volume of conductor material required = 3.5x [2P2ρ ɭ /3 W Vm2cos2φ] x ɭ = 7P2ρ ɭ 2/3 W Vm2cos2φ =(7/3 cos2φ )x ( P2ρ ɭ 2/W Vm2) =(7/3 cos2φ )x ( P2ρ ɭ 2/W Vm2) (multiplying and dividing by 4) As 4P2ρ ɭ2/ W V2m = K The volume of conductor material required for this system that required for . a10 = = 2P2ρ ɭ /3 W Vm2cos2φ As the that of any line conductor.Area of X-section.

1. system is most suitable for transmission due to two reasons.c. SYSTEM There is a great if d.C. This system is and . SYSTEM 3-phase a.c. 3-PHASE A.D. system is adopted for transmission of electric power Due to .c. . system is not used for transmission. There is saving in conductor material.C. 2. d.

The principal elements of a high-voltage transmission line are : 1.phase. Conductors: usually three for a single-circuit line and six for a double-circuit line. Transmission of electric power is done at high voltage by 3. 3-wire overhead system. Step-up and step-down transformers use of transformers permits power to be transmitted at high efficiency . usual material is aluminium reinforced with steel 2.

3. relays etc. They ensure the satisfactory service of the transmission line. Voltage regulating devices: Maintain the voltage at the receiving end within permissible limits. Isolate conductors electrically from the ground. 4. Support: Generally steel towers and provide support to the conductors. Line insulators: Mechanically support the line conductors. Protective devices: Ground wires. 6. circuit breakers. . lightning arrestors. 5.

Following two fundamental economic principles influence the electrical design of a transmission line : .The Engineer must design the various parts of transmission scheme in a way that maximum economy is achieved.

The of transmission line can be divided broadly into two parts: 1. is that for which the . The X-sectional area of the conductor is decided on the basis of minimum annual cost. Annual charge on capital outlay 2. . Annual cost of energy wasted in the conductor.Determination of proper size of conductor is of vital importance.

Annual charge on an can be expressed as: Annual charge = P1 + P2 a ……….(1) P1 and P2 are constants and a is the area of X-section of the conductor Insulator cost is constant Conductor cost is proportional to the area of X-section Cost of supports and their erection is partly constant and partly proportional to area of X-section of the conductor ..

Assuming a constant current in the conductor throughout the year Energy lost in the conductor is proportional to resistance. (3). Annual cost of energy wasted = P3 / a ……………. only area of X-section a is variable. .. C = exp (1) + exp (2) = P1 + P2 a + P3 / a ………….(3) In exp.(2) Total annual cost.Energy lost mainly in the conductor due to I2R losses. energy lost in the conductor is inversely proportional to area of X- section.

P2 a =P3 /a Kelvin’s Law can also be as: The most economical area of conductor is that for which the variable part of annual charge cost of energy losses per year. the d/da (C) = 0 …………………. Therefore. .

) (3) This curve shows the relation between of transmission line and area of X-section a.(1) shows the relation between the annual charge and the area of X-section a of the conductor (2) gives the relation between ted and X-sectional area a (Adding curves (1) and (2). the curve (3) is obtained. .

**Does not take into account several physical factors like . Not easy to estimate the on account of interest and depreciation on the capital outlay is in the form is strictly speaking 3. In practice. etc. the limitations of this law are : 1. determined by this law may on the capital outlay .

. conductors 2. Switchgear 5. other terminal apparatus For finding the economical transmission voltage: . transformers 4. insulators 3. . The transmission voltage for which the cost of: 1. and are assumed to be known.

Lightning arrestor: cost increases rapidly with the increase in transmission voltage. 5. Insulation and supports: cost increases sharply with the increase in transmission voltage. 2. 4.Conductor: cost decreases with the increase in transmission voltage . Transformers: Cost increases slowly with the increase in transmission voltage. Switchgear: Cost also increases with the increase in transmission voltage. 3.For standard transmission voltage work out the following costs : 1.

Curve is drawn for of transmission against voltage **This method is rarely used in practice as different costs cannot be determined with a fair degree of accuracy. .

c. system is: V = line voltage in kV P = maximum kW per phase to be delivered to single circuit ɭ = distance of transmission line in km .Present day trend: Empirical formulae is used for finding the economical transmission voltage. The economic voltage between lines in a 3-phase a.

Freedom from inductive interference. Sinusoidal waveform.1. 7. Efficiency 5. Balanced voltage 4. Voltage regulation 2. Dependability 3. . Frequency 6.

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