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SNS College of Engineering


Presented by,


 Web users are ubiquitous
 Web usability problems have clear relationship with
 Web users are largely discretionary users
 The web is evolving at a rapid pace
 Website technical development is easy


 Unpleasant or unproductive experience /impossible
for others
 Imprecise in results
 Poor presentation
 Technical flaws
 Broken links


 Browsing and linking
 Finding things
 Search and query on the web

 Relevance

 User interface issues
 Context of use

 Navigation issues


video and sound  links/hotspots may be in media  areas of pictures  times and locations in video  also called multimedia  but term also used for simple audio/video HCI AND THE WEB 5 .HYPERMEDIA – not just text  hypertext systems + additional media  illustrations. photographs.

BROWSING AND LINKING: what’s wrong with the WWW?  Importance of hypermedia in the structuring of information  To provide Personalized information  Improves productivity  Personalization of links by  Annotation  Computation  overviews HCI AND THE WEB 6 .

ANNOTATIONS  A standard or easily accessible web service. something like a wiki.  Mosaic browser supported the creation of annotations at both personal and group level  In a “writeable web” where personalized links and annotations are easily supported  Example  to improve or adapt its contents by adding/removing material. HCI AND THE WEB 7 .

private group for team members)  Subscribe to specific webpages notes HCI AND THE WEB 8 .e. Tag along with your notes and highlights  Create groups (i.Example for Annotation Diigo  Add notes and in-page highlights  Store.

complete with links.Private links  If on creates a web page. then those links are available as the content  Example  User bookmarks Local overview  Not provided as standard web service but as a specific courtesy page optionally supplied by site managers HCI AND THE WEB 9 .

Problems  Inaccessible to non-specialist users  The cost of assimilating the technology outweigh the perceived benefits  Readers learn to make use of the available tools instead of demanding better tools. HCI AND THE WEB 10 .

 Query  Problems:  Confusion and uncertainty surrounding query information  Impenetrability of seemingly endless results HCI AND THE WEB 11 .Finding things i) Searching and querying  The most common web tool to get information is search engine.

abilities. objectives and aspirations . HCI AND THE WEB 12 .Finding things ii) Relevance  Most information systems are designed for hypothetical “average” user  One size fits for all approach  It ignores all diversity like cultural and educational backgrounds.

PERSONALIZATION  Delivering content specific to the requirements of different users  Tailoring of content for either as individual or for a group of people  Personalization can be used to create communities of common interest.  “on the fly” no additional costs to the publishers HCI AND THE WEB 13 .

USER INTERFACE ISSUES  Context plays important part in the personalization and links.  Context of use  Navigation issues HCI AND THE WEB 14 .  Context needed to be considered in any environment.

CONTEXT OF USE  relevant constraints of the communicative situation that influence language use.  Others use internet through Mobile or PDA’s HCI AND THE WEB 15 . and discourse summary  Designers must consider the wide range of environment  88% of UK web users access internet primarily from home. language variation.

 Navigation –more complex  Between one third and one half of the time spent using a computer is unproductive due to problems in web navigation HCI AND THE WEB 16 .NAVIGATION ISSUES  Common difficulties faced by web users are download time and the navigation  Download time – governed by the technical capabilities of internet connections together with clear design variables.

NAVIGATION ISSUES  Planning routes  Generating a suitable plan  Following routes  Execute subsequent point by point decisions  Orienting within the space  People have to sense their current location  Learning the space  Repeated exposure to any large scale environment will lead to deepening knowledge of objects within the space. HCI AND THE WEB 17 .

 But still it has some difficulties HCI AND THE WEB 18 .BROWSING AND LINKING  Fundamental mechanism for viewing information on the web by browsing implemented by hypermedia links.

 Broken links can be frustrating for the user.creating a infrastructure or procedure that avoid broken links  Corrective-correcting broken links  Adaptive. only storing the instructions for making them HCI AND THE WEB 19 . resulting in loss of interest in the website.BROKEN AND MISDIRECTEDLINKS  A link which does not work any more.  Externalizing links – links are stored separately from the data  Preventative.never storing actual links.

CORRECTIVE SOLUTIONS  More robust  Aim to discover the new location for the linked document(relevant information sites).  Discard unfixable links HCI AND THE WEB 20 . discard them or notify the user of the problem.  Detect and attempt to correct links .

PERSONALIZING LINKS  Personalize links regardless of source. HCI AND THE WEB 21 . type or ownership of the data.

 Offering private means for recording ideas ought to become a priority for future web browser development HCI AND THE WEB 22 .PERSONALIZED LINKS  Users have different needs and an author of web page cannot anticipate all such requirements.  Provide links over data not owned by the user was available.

 Uncertain information need.SEARCHING AND QUERYING  Experts agree that the typical user will experience difficulties when attempting to formulate an effective query. HCI AND THE WEB 23 .  Difficulties in expression.  3-significant factors:  Low user commitment.

LOW USER COMMITMENT  In this world. HCI AND THE WEB 24 . use web search engines and give two word queries to be run against billions of web pages. people in hurry.  We expect and get a sub-second results.

HCI AND THE WEB 25 .UNCERTAIN INFORMATION NEEDS  Searches normally start out with an unrefined or vague information need which becomes more sharply focused as their search continues and exposure to information changes their information need.

it is difficult for a user to ask an information retrieval system for what they want. HCI AND THE WEB 26 .DIFFICULTIES IN EXPRESSION  Expect in special circumstances. because the user dos not know what is available  For successful query requires awareness of information-retrieval theory.

Initial query 2. 1. Continues until user satisfies HCI AND THE WEB 27 .RELEVANCE FEEDBACK  To overcome some of the above problems. Modifies 4. Relevant and Non-relevant web pages 3. New result submitted to the user 5. researches developed strategies.

 Solution: a.  Leads to “ABUNDANCE PROBLEM”-the number of pages that could reasonably be returned as relevant is far too large. Community-based ranking algorithm b. Improved visual interface c.THE RESULT LIST  User submits broad query resulting in too large documents. Document Clustering HCI AND THE WEB 28 .

 Calculated using a statistical measure related to the occurrence of the query terms “term frequency”.COMMUNITY BASED RANKING ALGORITHM  A search engine ranks a set of web pages in order of their likelihood that they will be relevant to the user information need. HCI AND THE WEB 29 . most likely appears first.  It represents a purely arithmetical evaluation of the web pages concerned.

IMPROVED VISUAL INTERFACE  The user’s mental load from slower.perceptual processes such as pattern recognition.  Color is very useful for helping people quickly select one particular word or object from a sea of others.  It is easier to compare bars in a graph than numbers on a list. HCI AND THE WEB 30 . thought intensive processes such as reading to faster .

 Web pages similar are grouped together under a single category or heading and the user is subsequently presented several clusters of web pages.DOCUMENT CLUSTERING  The process of generalizing a set of results begins with identifying particular commonalities shared by some member of that set. HCI AND THE WEB 31 .  The number of clusters is low it reduces the load of studying the results.

 PORTALS.  DESIGN APPROACHES:  PERSONALIZATION.PERSONALIZATION. HCI AND THE WEB 32 . difficult for authors (Content Providers) to prevent their pages from being lost in the crowd.PORTALS AND COMMUNITIES  It is difficult for a user (Content Consumer) to find what they are looking for.  COMMUNITIES.

com stores information about the customer’s interest gleaned from various sources to generate a personalized home page and suggest items that are likely to be of interest. HCI AND THE WEB 33 .PERSONALIZATION  The contents of the websites are changed so that the materials appropriate for the needs and requirements of the individual. Eg: Educational adaptive system (AEH) uses the web for teaching and learning.  Eg: Amazon.

HCI AND THE WEB 34 .ADAPTIVE AND ADAPTABLE SYSTEM  This is the two main approaches of Personalization.  Adaptive system: Dynamically organize their contents to meet the perceived needs of the user.  This is transparent and does not require any intervention of the user.  Adaptable System: It make changes to the content only as the result of the explicit intervention of the user.

 Adaptive linking has five categories:  Direct guidance  Link sorting  Link hiding  Link annotation  Map Adaptation HCI AND THE WEB 35 .METHODS AND MODELS OF ADAPTATION  The approaches to implementing adaptation on the web.  The adaptive presentation operates on text. although in principle any media type may be adapted. at the level of either content or linking.

 Link Hiding: Inappropriate links are not displayed.CONT…  Direct guidance: System makes recommendation as to the next node to visit.  Link sorting: The ordering of links is changed so that the most appropriate one is at the head of the list. Used for “guided tour” type of direction for novice users.  Link Annotation: Visual clues gives user some idea about the system.  Map-Adaptation: Navigational map generated according to adaptation rules. HCI AND THE WEB 36 .

 MODELS:  STEREOTYPE MODEL: Users are grouped together with other like-minded individuals.USER MODELING  A user model is simply a set of rules that adaptive system use to make decisions about relevance.  OVERLAY MODEL: The individuals knowledge.background and any other relevant data are overlaid onto the sum of all knowledge in the system. HCI AND THE WEB 37 .

the author concentrates on content.  Depending upon the adaptation model that is used.  When authoring a conventional web pages.AUTHORING  There are number of potentially difficult issues that need to be concentrated when designing authoring interface for adaptive system. HCI AND THE WEB 38 . what author sees might be different from what any given end user sees.

 Many portals have their roots in either Inter directories or search engines and a common model of a portal user interface.PORTALS  A common way to gain a personalized experience of the web is the use of portals. allowing for explicit selections of user interface options. a set of links that provide starting point for web use.  These are the gateways to online resources.  They are usually adaptable. HCI AND THE WEB 39 .

 Portals. are often designed to support communities.COMMUNITIES  The Internet has its roots in communities. especially those that are intranet based.  Communities on the web are often supported by or generated through. commented upon and redistributed throughout the internet.  Weblogs: It allow a user to post material which can be citied. cultural or temporal barriers. in creating links and bridging geographic. portals. HCI AND THE WEB 40 .

HCI AND THE WEB 41 . Eg:Wikipedia.CONT…  These blogs require no specific knowledge of authoring and are usually accessed with a standard web browser.  Wikis: These are community websites designed to facilitate collaborative authoring.

search engines are still serving large chunks of unrefined information to the users.SUMMARY  Users of a search engine are overawed by the number of results returned when a query is submitted.  Even with these improvements.  This seems likely to change soon. HCI AND THE WEB 42 .

HCI AND THE WEB 43 . generally the usability of the web has improved greatly since its early days. looking at the issues impeding smooth user interaction with the web tools and documents.CONCLUSION  In this chapter we have considered HCI in a specific web context.  While some problems remain unsolved.