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Introduction WHAT IS SUPERCONDUCTIVITY?? For some materials. superconductors can carry large amounts of current with little or no loss of energy. the resistivity vanishes at some low temperature: they become superconducting. Superconductivity is the ability of certain materials to conduct electrical current with no resistance. Superconductivity was discovered in 1911 by Heike Kammerlingh Onnes Applications of superconductors  Engineering field  Medical field . Thus.

Leon Cooper. . and Robert Schrieffer in what is commonly called the BCS theory.  This pairing results from a slight attraction between the electrons related to lattice vibrations. BCS Theory of Superconductivity  The properties of type I superconductors were modeled by the efforts of John Bardeen.  A key conceptual element in this theory is the pairing of electrons close to the Fermi level into Cooper pairs through interaction with the crystal lattice. the coupling to the lattice is called a phonon interaction.

Types of Superconductors Type I Type II  Sudden loss of  Gradual loss of magnetisation magnetisation  Exhibit Meissner Effect  Does not exhibit  One HC = 0.1 tesla complete Meissner  No mixed state Effect  Two HCs – HC1 & HC2  Soft superconductor (≈30 tesla)  Eg.s – Nb-Sn. Sn. Hg  Mixed state present  Hard superconductor  Eg.s – Pb. Nb-Ti .

1 .Superconducting Elements TC (K) Sn (Tin) 3.72 Hg (Mercury) 4.19 Superconducting Compounds NbTi (Niobium Titanium) 10 Nb3Sn (Niobium Tin) 18.15 Pb (Lead) 7.

Material exhibits perfect diamagnetism or flux exclusion. MEISSNER EFFECT When the superconducting material is placed in a magnetic field under the condition when T≤TC and H ≤ HC. the flux lines are excluded from the material. B B T>Tc T<Tc Levitation of a magnet by superconductor .

levitation Magnet Superconductor Yamanashi MLX01 MagLev train 430 km/h = 267.2 mph .Applications of Meissner Effect Standard test – proof for a superconductor Repulsion of external magnets .

APPLICATIONS: Superconducting Magnetic Levitation The track are walls with a continuous series of vertical coils of wire mounted inside. In addition. The electromagnets on the train and outside produce forces that levitate the train and keep it centered above the track. making them electromagnets. As the train passes each coil. the motion of the superconducting magnet on the train induces a current in these coils. The wire in these coils is not a superconductor. The Yamanashi MLX01MagLev Train . a wave of electric current sweeps down these outside coils and propels the train forward.

 the movement of electrons across the barrier is known as Josephson tunneling. The flow of current between the superconductors in the absence of an applied voltage is called a Josephson current. . separated by a nonsuperconducting layer so thin that electrons can cross through the insulating barrier.  Two or more junctions joined by superconducting paths form what is called a Josephson interferometer. JOSEPHSON EFFECT A Josephson junction is made up of two superconductors.


 more difficult and expensive to produce. Types Two main types of SQUID: 1) RF SQUIDs have only one Josephson junction 2)DC SQUIDs have two or more junctions.  much more sensitive. uses Study of earthquakes Removing paramagnetic impurities Detection of magnetic signals from brain. . Thereby. heart etc.


Applications Large distance power transmission (ρ = 0) Switching device (easy destruction of superconductivity) Sensitive electrical equipment (small V variation  large constant current) Memory / Storage element (persistent current) Highly efficient small sized electrical generator and transformer .

defective cells •Separate damaged cells and healthy cells . Medical Applications •NMR – Nuclear Magnetic Resonance – Scanning •Brain wave activity – brain tumour.

htm .ornl. USA › Detroit Edison at the Frisbie Substation › three 400-foot HTS cables › 100 million watts of power http://www. 2001: