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A bit of History

• William Roentgen discovered X-rays in 1895 .
• Roentgen was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1901.

• X-ray have the following properties :-
1. Travel in straight lines
2. Are exponentially absorbed in matter with the exponent proportional to
the mass of the absorbing material
3. Darken photographic plates
4. Make shadows of absorbing material on photosensitive paper
Electromagnetic spectrum
• X-rays are electromagnetic waves.
• with wavelengths in the range of 0.01 to 10 nanometers.
• energy in the range of 100 eV to 100 KeV.
• Frequency in the range of 3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz
I. 99% energy is converted into heat
II. Less than1% is converted into x-ray
III. Large focal spot
IV. Small focal area

I. Size and shape of focal spot
II. Size and shape of electron stream

“The negatively charged electrode by
which electrons enter an electrical

Cathode is a source of electrons which
consist of filament and focusing cup.

It supply both voltage and amperage.

It is made up of Tungsten wire of about
2mm in diameter.
“The positively charged electrode by which the electrons
leave an electrical device”.

Anode consist of small plate of tungsten which is 2mm or
3mm thick.

Tungsten is used because it has high atomic number,
melting point.

If Cu anode is used it acts to increase the total thermal
capacity of the anode and also increases rate of cooling.

The rotating anode principle is used to produce X-ray
tubes Capable of withstanding the heat generated by large