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BE FRUITFUL

R. THOMAS

Embryological searches need
the basic sciences to progress.

Injections may be deadly! .

rna. DNA. 1944 Avery refined the search options: lipids. .carbs. proteins.

1952 Martha Chase & Alfred Hershey where is the transformer located? .

During the S phase. DNA replication occurs! HOW? .

The cell cycle .

Cyclin kind and concentrations change .

com/anatomy-book/resources/0323_DNA_Replication.jpg . DNA REPLICATION • http://philschatz.

DNA REPLICATION always precedes CELL DIVISION .

HOW DOES DNA REPLICATE? .

wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fb/Meselson-stahl_experiment_diagram_en.png . MESELSON &STAHL https://upload.svg.svg/300px-Meselson- stahl_experiment_diagram_en.

jpg .wonderwhizkids. THE OLD AND NEW TOGETHER http://www.com/wwkimages/Know_Why/dna_replic5.

Mechanisms Leading and lagging strands .

What occurs on the micro is reflected in the macro Private things have a way of becoming public .

The Cell prepares for Mitosis G1-S-G2-Mitosis .

G1 = Interphase (long). Cell cycle . .cyclins G1 and G2 = gap phases Cancer loss of control of restriction point. S = DNA synthesis. M = Mitosis. .

CENTROMERE AND KINETOCHORE .

Microtubule organizing centre .

MICROTUBULES .

In a mitotic division the daughter cells produced have a similar number of chromosomes as the parent cell. . In a meiotic division. the cells produced have half of the chromosomal Number of the parent cell.

Mitosis has six phases Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis .

Mitotic division .

Prophase Dis-assembly of the nucleolus Coiling contracting & condensing of chromosomes Short microtubules are formed. These are called ASTERS .

PROMETHAPHASE STARTS WITH A DISMANTLING OF THE NUCLEAR ENVELOPE COUPLED WITH INVASION OF THE ENVELOPE BY MICROTUBULES FROM THE CENTRIOLES. .

Fig (H) . central spindle assembles and cleavage furrow constricts before forming two cells.Nuclear envelope disassembles.

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MEIOSIS • MEIOW – REDUCE • REDUCTION DIVISION .

. Sister chromatids under the influence of cohesin proteins behin to condense. Phases of Meiosis 1 Leptotene In the leptotene phase the chromosomes look like thin ribbons. At the end of leptotene the sister chromatids derived from both parents are somewhat in alignment with a distance between homologous chromosomes of about 400nm.

Zygotene of Meiosis (yoked) chromosomes During this stage a synaptonemal protein complex pairs the chromosomes together. .

Crossing over –chiasmata pachytene .

Pachytene thick chromosomes In this stage the homologous chromosomes are joined together along their length by the synaptonemal complex. Crossovers form chiasmata. .

. DIPLOTENE • SISTER CHROMATIDS REMAIN CLOSELY CONNECTED • THIS PHASE CAN LAST FOR MORE THAN 40 YEARS IN FEMALES.

SUMMARY Meiosis overview .

SUMMARY Stages of Mitosis .

Mitosis –Gone Awry! .

Thyroid – mitosis https://upload.JPG .org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/53/Goiter.JPG/800px-Goiter.Goitre .wikimedia.

THE END .