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**1. “Influence of Hysteretic Behavior on Equivalent Period and Damping of Structural
**

System. -(By Kwan and Billington)-

**The tangent stiffness used anatically as based method in Deierlein and Hsieh (1990) and
**

Reinhorn et al. (1995). Presented in textbook by Chopra (1995) and Priestley et al. (1996)

as the “standard method to derive the equivalent linear system.

**Tangent stiffness method:
**

The Teq is computed from tangent stiffness, which is a measure of an average stiffness of

the system.

The ξeq is derived from energy balance of actual hysteretic energy versus damping energy

of the equivalent linear system.

the damping coefficient will be referenced to the post-yield.). the damping coefficient is proportional to the instantaneous value of the stiffness (rapid value of stiffness) and it is updated whenever the stiffness changes. Tangent Stiffness The damping coefficient (c = 2mωξ) is proportionately changed in every changing of stiffness (associated with yield. unloading.2. . By Priestley et al. The damping coefficient will equal to damping coefficient associated with the initial- stiffness only in the initial elastic response (before yield state). the unloading or the reloading stiffness. reloading etc. After 1st yield. With tangent stiffness damping.

as the effects are expected to be masked by the much greater energy dissipation associated with hvsteretic response. 1981) that the choice of initial damping model between a constant damping matrix and tangent-stiffness proportional damping matrix could be significant. This is despite evidence by others (Otani. without clarifying whether this has been related to the initial or tangent stiffness. of critical damping. particularly for short-period structures. typically 5%. Typically research papers reporting results on single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) ITHA state that 5% elastic damping was used. It is our understanding that many analysts consider the choice of the initial elastic damping model to be rather insignificant for either SDOF or MDOF inelastic analyses. before hysteretic damping is activated. . This is normally specified as a percentage.Elastic Damping Modelling: It is common to specify a level of elastic damping in ITHA (inelastic time history analysis) to represent damping in the initial stages of response.

There are three main reasons for incorporating elastic damping in ITHA: • The assumption of linear elastic response at force-levels less than yield: Many hysteretic rules.4. nonlinearity and radiation damping are not normally incorporated in structural time-history analyses. it is noted that hysteretic rules are generally calibrated to experimental structural data in the inelastic phase of response. . Discussing these reasons in turn. and therefore do not represent the nonlinearity. unless additional elastic damping is provided. and relative movement between structural and non-structural elements in a building may result in an effective additional damping force. Therefore additional elastic damping should not be used in the post-yield state to represent structural response except when the structure is unloading and reloading elastically. If the hysteretic rule models the elastic range nonlinearly (as is the case for fibre-element modelling) then no additional damping should be used in ITHA for structural representation.34 make this assumption. and hence hysteretic damping within the elastic range for concrete and masonry structures. • Non-structural damping: Hysteretic response of non-structural elements. including all those shown in Fig. • Foundation damping: Soil flexibility. and may provide additional damping to the structural response.

observed both initial stiffness and tangent stiffness method in deriving the correction factor. ξeq=kξel+ξhys. On page 83. Dwairi’sseparated the elastic damping for 5 % and adjusting the coefficient C. Both of them have their correction factor for elastic damping. Grant’s separated the elastic damping and give correction factor to the elastic damping. . ξeq=ξc+ξhys. Priestley’s used both Grant and Dwairi. in using tangent stiffness the value of elastic damping should be less than the damping coeff. (Period dependency also the correction factor) Priestley’s used the tangent stiffness method (page 84 Priestley’s DBD book) instead of the initial stiffness.Kwan’s paper derive both elastic damping and hysteretic damping with period dependency and combine both in one equation. Grant et al.

(It is unusual for regular structures such as frame and wall building also bridges to have eff period less than 1 s) Period Independency: By Gulkan & Sozen: no relation was propose for Teq. (Hysteretic damping found in stable value for long duration at T=4 s. By Grant : Period dependency. By Kwan and Billington : The objective is to find a linear system with a certain period (Teq) and a certain damping ratio (ξeq) such that its peak displacement response matches that of the nonlinear system. . The Teq is significantly higher than optimized Teq derived by Iwan. By Dwairi : The period dependency was generally insignificant for period greater than 1 s (except elastoplastic) conservative to ignore the period dependency in design.EQUIVALENT PERIOD (EFFECTIVE PERIOD) (Period dependency). Teq was estimated from tangent stiffness method. By Iwan: To Optimize Teq and (ξeq) in order to minimize the error between the maximum displacement from inelastic sys and the equivalent linear sys. the result is conservative for short duration but more realistic for long duration. By Dwairi: : The period dependency was generally insignificant for period greater than 1 s (except elastoplastic). Note: Both Iwan and Gulkan give similar result for ξeq.

-This approach is only considered the monotonic-load displacement. .Many approximations are needed to evaluate the maximum response of inelastic structural sys subjected to earthquake excitations. BUT SHOULD NOT USE TANGENT STIFFNESS METHOD TO DERIVE ξeq (JACOBSEN APPROACH) DERIVE OWN EQUATION TO ESTIMATE EQUIVALENT DAMPING OR GIVE SOME ADDITIONAL VALUE TO APPROXIMATE. The change in stiffness of system during load-cycles is ignored.NOTE: DERIVE Teq FROM TANGENT STIFFNESS. . . .Basic problem in tangent stiffness: (based on Kwan’s paper) The use of tangent stiffness to derive Teq.

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