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COACH WIRING

Muzzammil Sheriff M
App SSE/Electrical/General Service
GOC Workshop, Ponmalai, Trichy
CIRCUIT
INTRODUCTION
• Most of the conventional non-air conditioned BG coaches (ie. TL
coaches) running on Indian Railways are Self Generation (SG) type
coaches fitted with 4.5 kW alternators.
• These coaches have 110 V DC systems for fan & lights.
• Each coach is provided with bogie mounted axle driven one brushless
alternator of 4.5 kW with static rectifier-cum regulator unit (RRU)/
Electronic rectifier-cum-regulator unit (ERRU), giving an output at 124
volts D.C.
• The lights are arranged in two circuits (L-I, L-II) and fans in one circuit-
F, each controlled by a rotary switch.
• Each circuit of lights and fans is protected by HRC fuse which acts as
back up protection in case of any short circuit fault, isolating the
faulty circuit only.
• The circuit L-1 have essential/emergency lighting circuit which also
include all Lavatory lights, 50% of compartment lights, doorway lights,
Night lights in all types of IInd Class coaches.
• The L-II light circuit feeds the remaining 50% compartment lights in
the coach.
• Re-wirable tinned copper fuses protect the branch circuits for lights
and fans.
• These re-wirable fuses are located on a distribution fuse board.
• All branch circuits are protected by the fuses, both on negative and
positive sides.
• Ordinarily one fuse protects upto a maximum of 3 light points or 2
fans points.
• The positive & negative cable is segregated by running them in two
separate conduits.
• The phase & field cables from alternator to terminal box and from
terminal box to rectifier cum regulator should be run in flexible PVC
conduits.
CABLE COLOUR CODE

• For easy identification of the cables, the various circuits have colour
code as indicated below:
• Paralleling main and fan positive cables …….… Red
• Light positive cables. …………………..… ……Yellow
• Fan negative cables ………………………..…… Black
• All other negative cables except fan negatives … Blue
CABLE CLEARANCE, SIZE
• Clearance
• 10mm between live part and coach body
• 4mm between positive and negative wires
• Alternator to Regulator 3 phase: 16 sq mm (Copper)
• Field: 4 sq mm (Copper)
• Regulator to Link Box: 16 sq mm (Copper)
• Roof
• L1, L2, FAN, EFT: 16 sq mm (Aluminium)
• Fuse: SWG 35 i.e. 0.0358 sq mm (Tinned Copper)
COMPONENTS
• BCT (Battery Charging Terminals)
• BCT is provided centrally at the both sides of the under-frame of the coaches
for external charging of the batteries at stations or maintenance lines.
• Under-frame Terminal Box
• All the cables coming from under-frame equipment like regulator-rectifier,
batteries and battery charging sockets are terminated at the terminal board
mounted inside this box.
• Supply to the junction box inside the coach is taken from this box.
• RJB (Rotary Junction Box)
• Rotary Junction Box is provided inside the coach.
• It is used to arrange and control the power supply to various circuits of the
coach (e.g. light, fan etc.) with the help of rotary switches and HRC fuses.
• EFT (Emergency Feed Terminals)
• Each coach is provided with four emergency feed terminal boards on end
panels, one each at the four corners of the coach at lower level to enable
emergency connection to be made between adjacent coaches.
• On these terminal boards, the outer terminal shall be connected to the
positive and the inner terminal shall be connected to negative.
• Light Fittings
• The coaches are fitted with FTL, CFL or incandescent light fittings.
• The fluorescent light fittings 2 feet long, 20 watt, CFL of 11w x 2, incandescent
lamps 25w/40w are working on 110 V DC supply.
• Now in the process in replacing FTL with LED light
• Carriage Fans
• On non AC BG coaches 400 mm sweep carriage fans are used where system
voltage is 110 V DC.
• These fans are fixed type with voltage range is 90-140V DC.
• These fans are being replaced with Brushless DC (BLDC) fans for 110 Volt dc,
400 mm and 450 mm sweep fixed type.
• The blades are made of fire retardant plastic material.
• Fuse Distribution Boards (FDB)
• Fuse distribution boards are provided for each compartment/ bay of the
coach.
• The covers of Fuse distribution boards are modified to restrict the entry of
waste/rubbish material inside the FDB through its cover and thus reduce the
possibility of fires incidences in the cables in the vicinity of FDB.
• Mobile Charger
• Input Voltage- 110 V DC
• Output Voltage- 110 V AC
• Output Power- 100 VA
• Emergency Light
• During extreme emergencies like derailment, accidents etc. sometimes power
supply system fail, causing total darkness inside the coach.
• To facilitate easy exist of passenger and their immediate rescue during such
emergencies, this Emergency Light Unit (ELU) has been developed to provide
illumination during failure of all other power supplies inside the coach.
INSPECTION
Safety items to be checked on
battery Box

• Full components of battery box fixing


bolts.
• Its tightness observation of its bottom
plate and side plates for damage,
• Full tightness of cell packing
• Proper securement of anti theft
arrangement and battery box cover
• Full tightness of inter cell connections
Correct size of battery fuse
• Elimination of earth leakage
• Maintenance of correct polarity etc.,
Safety items to be checked on under
frame:-

• Junction box are provision of correct


polarity of incoming and outgoing
cables.
• Full tightness of all cables.
• Proper securement of all cables etc.
Safety items to be checked on
Rectifier cum Regulator Unit
• Full compliments of RRU Box fixing bolts and its
tightness.
• Provision of correct size of HRC fuses.
• Maintenance of correct polarity of field wire.
• DC output terminals and their tightness etc.
•The fuse provided in 4.5 KW RR
Box for one of 3 phase AC supply
is 32 A HRC.
•The field fuse provided in RR box
is 6 A HRC.
Safety items to be checked on
rotary junction box
• Full tightness of all terminal connections.
• Provision of correct size & Rating of HRC fuses.
• Maintaining correct polarity incoming and outgoing
cables.
• Avoiding earthing and shorting of cables.
Safety items to be checked on TL
fans
• Full components of its fixing bolts and
their tightness.
• Proper securement of guards and blade.
• Observation fan hinge for breakage
avoiding of earthing and shorting of fan
wires etc.
• Fitment of rubber packing (100%
replacement during POH).
• Replace fan Guard/fan blade if found in
damage condition.
Safety items to be checked on fuse
distribution boards
• Provision of correct size of Fuse or re-wireble
fuses.
• Elimination of loose fuse wires.
• Full tightness of terminal connections.
• Proper securement of its cover etc.
Safety items to be checked on tail
lamp/side light/tube lights
• Proper fitment of above with
screws/bolts.
• Avoiding earthing and shorting of
lamp leads.
• Proper securement of wiring.
Safety items to be checked on
EFT/BCT

• Proper Fitment /provision of these fitting.


• Correct polarity, provision of correct size
of fuses.
• Maintaining correct polarity while
charging.
Safety items to be checked wiring
• Securing of wiring through cleats
• Provision of correct size of fuses in wiring circuits.
• Elimination of lower size cables.
• Provision of PVC bushes when ever wires passing through metal
parts.
• Eliminations of temporary wiring, avoiding of earthing and shorting
of cables etc.
INSPECTION CHECKLIST
EARTHING FAILURE OBSERVED
• Earthing initially found out via test lamp and reconfirmed via
Insulation Tester (Megger)

• Fan
• FDB fuse touching the body

• RRU
• Diode panel touching the body
MUST CHANGE ITEMS DURING POH
FIRE
CAUSES
• Insulation failure
• Loose Connection/Crimping
• Failure of Safety Devices
• Poor Material Quality
• Poor Workmanship
• Spillage of oil, acid, etc.
• Over Current
PREVENTION

• 1. Use of standard size of fuse wire for the individual branch light
&fan circuit of individual bays in TL coaches .Use of standard size of
fuse/MCB in main control panel and other circuit/equipment.
• 2. Use of standard size cables in different circuit of the coaches as per
specification.
• 3. Ensuring minimum clearance of 10 mm between live part & the
coach body & 4 mm between opposite polarities in coach wiring.
• 4.Regular checking of earthing on positive & negative wire of the
coach following standard procedures prescribed by R.D.S.O.
• 5.Use of protective grommet of PVC with noninflammable property to
avoid damage to the cable insulation from metallic sharp edge.
• 6.Provision of cable sleeve near terminal to avoid shorting of cable
where clearances between live part and metallic body are critical.
• 7.Proper sealing of fuse distribution board in T. L. coach to prevent of
foreign material like bidi, cigarette, paper e.t.c by passengers. Regular
checking inspection schedule to be ensured.
• 8.Use of flush type light fitting in luggage compartment of SLR.
• 9.Provision of Rotary switch panel with fuse in lie of MCB in T.L
Coaches.
• 10.Proper training to staff for feed extension from adjacent coach in
emergency condition.
• 11.Use of non metallic fire retardant blades in chimney blowers of
Pantry car.
• 12. Use of low smoke , fire retardant low halogen E-beam cable in T.L.
Coaches.
• 13.Use of rubber ferrules at cable exit entry points &critical location
to prevent damage to cable .
• 14.Use of proper cleating of cable as specified in code of practice of
wiring of TL/A.C. Coaches scheme.
• 15.Proper tightening &cleaning of battery connection.
• 16.Provision of over voltage protection in RRU of TL coaches.
• 17.Replacement of damage / perished cables in coaches during
POH/Major schedules.
THANK YOU